Skin Rejection in Human Hand Allografts: Histological Findings and Grading System

  • Jean Kanitakis


Composite tissue allotransplantation, i.e. allotransplantation of heterogeneous non-organ tissues containing skin, muscles, bones, tendons and vessels, has been experimentally performed in animals for several decades, with reports dating back to the beginning of the twentieth century [1]. With the advent of cyclosporine, limb allografts were tried again in primates in the 1980s but resulted invariably in more or less rapid immunological rejection, manifesting mainly on the skin [2, 3]. However, discovery of safer and more efficient immunosuppressive drugs, such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), along with advances in (micro)surgical techniques, has made allotransplantation of composite tissues possible in humans, opening a new era for replacement of missing tissues due to traumatic or postoperative loss and congenital defects [4, 5].


Human Leukocyte Antigen Allograft Rejection Sweat Gland Aminoethyl Carbazole Composite Tissue 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Kanitakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyÉdouard Herriot HospitalLyonFrance

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