Potential of Lignocellulosic Materials for Production of Ethanol



Increasing greenhouse gases, mainly due to anthropogenic causes, are the major cause of climate change. The need for renewable fuels is becoming paramount largely because of environmental reasons. Presently ethanol and biodiesel are predominantly produced from corn kernels, sugarcane, or soybean oil which might create food vs fuel competition and destabilize land use pattern for agriculture. Recently cellulosic biofuels and algal biodiesels are prominent biological approaches to sequester and convert CO2. In order to avoid this biofuel feedstock, lignocelluloses—the most abundant biological material on earth—are being explored. Lignocelluloses are omnipresent—wheat straw, corn husks, prairie grass, discarded rice hulls, or trees. The race is on to optimize the technology that can produce biofuels from lignocellulose sources more efficiently—and biotech companies are in the run. There is a campaign which advocates that 25% of US energy come from arable land by 2025. Present review attempts in presenting state-of-the-art report on biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials.


Lignocellulose Ethanol Cellulose Green house gases 


  1. Acker R, Van LJ, Aerts D, Storme V, Goeminne G, Ivens B (2014) Improved saccharification and ethanol yield from field-grown transgenic poplar deficient in cinnamoyl-CoA reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(2):10–15Google Scholar
  2. Aden A (2005) Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis for corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96(6):673–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aditiya HB, Chong WT, Mahlia TM, Sebayang AH, Berawi MA, Nur H (2016) Second generation bioethanol potential from selected Malaysia’s biodiversity biomasses: a review. Waste Manag 47:46–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Albers SC, Berklund AM, Graff GD (2016) The rise and fall of innovation in biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 34(8):814–821CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alper H, Moxley J, Nevoigt E, Fink GR, Stephanopoulos G (2006) Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production. Science 314:1565–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvira P, Tomás-Pejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. Bioresour Technol 101(13):4851–4861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arencibia AD, Carmona ER, Tellez P, Chan MT, Yu SM, Trujillo LE Oramas P (1998) An efficient protocol for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. L.) transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgenic Res 7:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arruda P (2012) Genetically modified sugarcane for bioenergy generation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 23(3):315–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atsumi S, Higashide W, Liao JC (2009) Direct photosynthetic recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde. Nat Biotechnol 27:1177–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bak JS (2014) Lignocellulose depolymerization occurs via an environmentally adapted metabolic cascades in the wood-rotting basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Microbiology 4:151–166Google Scholar
  11. Balat M, Balat C, Öz C (2008) Progress in bioethanol processing. Prog Energy Combust Sci 34:551–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basen M, Schut GJ, Nguyen DM, Lipscomb GL, Benn RA, Prybol CJ (2014) Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:17618–17623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Binder JB, Raines RT (2009) Simple chemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals. J Am Chem Soc 131:1979–1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boakye-Boaten NA, Xiu S, Shahbazi A, Wang L, Li R, Mims M, Schimmel K (2016) Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 204:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brennan L, Owende P (2010) Biofuels from micro-algae a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burton RA, Fincher GB (2014) Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health. Curr Opin Biotechnol 26:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cabrera E, Muñoz MJ, Martín R, Caro I, Curbelo C, Díaz AB (2015) Comparison of industrially viable pretreatments to enhance soybean straw biodegradability. Bioresour Technol 194:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cao W, Sun C, Liu R, Yin R, Wu X (2012) Bioresource technology comparison of the effects of five pretreatment methods on enhancing the enzymatic digestibility and ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse. Bioresour Technol 111:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr MT, Hettenhaus JR (2009) Sustainable production of cellulosic feedstock for biorefineries in the USA. Biofuels 9–38Google Scholar
  20. Carroll A, Somerville C (2009) Cellulosic biofuels. Annu Rev Plant Biol 60:165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen F, Dixon RA (2007) Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25(7):759–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen H, Qiu W (2010) Key technologies for bioethanol production from lignocellulose. Biotechnol Adv 28(5):556–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen W, Wu F, Zhang J (2016) Potential production of non-food biofuels in china. Renew Energy 85:939–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choi WL, Park JY, Lee JP, Oh YK, Park YC, Kim JS, Park JM, Kim CH, Lee JS (2013) Optimization of NaOH-catalyzed steam pretreatment of empty fruit bunch. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chung D, Cha M, Guss AM, Westpheling J (2014) Direct conversion of plant biomass to ethanol by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(24):8931–8936Google Scholar
  26. Connor SEO (2015) Engineering of secondary metabolism.
  27. Cotana F, Cavalaglio G, Gelosia M, Coccia V, Petrozzi A, Ingles D, Pompili E (2015) A comparison between SHF and SSSF processes from cardoon for ethanol production. Ind Crop Prod 69:424–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dal-Bianco M, Carneiro MS, Hotta CT, Chapola RG, Hoffmann HP, Garcia AAF, Souza GM (2012) Sugarcane improvement: how far can we go? Curr Opin Biotechnol 23(2):265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davidi L, Moraïs S, Artzi L, Knop D, Hadar Y, Arfi Y, Bayer EA (2016) Toward combined delignification and saccharification of wheat straw by a laccase-containing designer cellulosome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113(39):1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Demain AL, Newcomb M, Wu JHD (2005) Cellulase, clostridia, and ethanol. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 69:124–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. DiCarl JE, Norville JE, Mali P, Rios X, Aach J, Church GM (2013) Genome engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using CRISPR-Cas systems. Nucleic Acids Res 41:4336–4343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elkins JG, Raman B, Keller M (2010) Engineered microbial systems for enhanced conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Curr Opin Biotechnol 21:657–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ethanol Producer Magazine (2015) US ethanol plants, Available at:
  34. Faraco V (2013) Lignocellulose conversion: enzymatic and microbial tools for bioethanol production. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  35. Fujita T, Nakao E, Takeuchi M, Tanimura A, Ando A, Kishino S, Shimizu S (2016) Characterization of starch-accumulating duckweeds, Wolffia globosa, as renewable carbon source for bioethanol production. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol 6:123–127Google Scholar
  36. Galazka JM, Tian C, Beeson WT, Martinez B, Glass NL, Cate JHD (2010) Cellodextrin transport in yeast for improved biofuel production. Science 330:84–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallego LJ, Escobar A, Peñuela M, Peña JD, Rios LA (2015) King grass: a promising material for the production of second-generation butanol. Fuel 143:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Girotto F, Alibardi L, Cossu R (2015) Food waste generation and industrial uses: a review. Waste Manag 45:32–41Google Scholar
  39. Gombert AK, van Maris AJA (2015) Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes. Curr Opin Biotechnol 33:81–86Google Scholar
  40. Goswami M, Meena S, Navatha S, Prasanna RKN, Pandey A, Sukumaran RK, Prasad RBN, Prabhavathi Devi BLA (2015) Hydrolysis of biomass using a reusable solid carbon acid catalyst and fermentation of the catalytic hydrolysate to ethanol. Bioresour Technol 188:99–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gu H, Zhang J, Bao J (2014) Inhibitor analysis and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation from industrial waste corncob residues. Bioresour Technol 157:6–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gu H, Zhang J, Bao J (2015) High tolerance and physiological mechanism of Zymomonas mobilis to phenolic inhibitors in ethanol fermentation of corncob residue. Biotechnol Bioeng 112(9):1770–1782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hahn-Hägerdal B, Galbe M, Gorwa-Grauslund MF, Lidén G, Zacchi G (2006) Bioethanol—the fuel of tomorrow from the residues of today. Trends Biotechnol 24:549–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haitjema CH, Solomon KV, Henske JK, Theodorou MK, O’Malley MA (2014) Anaerobic gut fungi: advances in isolation, culture, and cellulolytic enzyme discovery for biofuel production. Biotechnol Bioeng 111(8):1471–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. He YC, Gong L, Liu F, Lu T, Qing Q, Wang LQ, Zhang Y, Gao FT, Wang X (2014) Waste biogas residue from cassava dregs as carbon source to produce Galactomyces sp. CCZU11-1 cellulase and its enzymatic saccharification. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 173:894–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. He et al. (2015a) Lignocellulosic biomass, such as corn stover (CS), is of particular interest, to serve as a widely abundant and renewable feedstock for the production of fuel ethanolGoogle Scholar
  47. He Y, Ding Y, Xue Y, Yang B, Liu F, Wang C, Zhang D (2015b) Bioresource technology enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction. Bioresour Technol 193:324–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. He YC, Liu F, Gong L, Zhu ZZ, Ding Y, Wang C, Xue YF, Rui H, Tao ZC, Zhang DP, Ma CL (2015c) Significantly improving enzymatic saccharification of high crystallinity index’s corn stover by combining ionic liquid [Bmim]Cl-HCl-water media with dilute NaOH pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 189:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hendriks ATWM, Zeeman G (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 100:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hill J, Nelson E, Tilman D, Polasky S, Tiffany D (2006) Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11206–11210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Himmel ME et al (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315:804–807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. John UM (2013) Contribution of the ethanol industry to the economy of the United States. Renewable Fuels Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  53. Kerr RA (2007) Climate change. Global warming is changing the world. Science 316(5822):188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koppram R, Tomás-Pejó E, Xiros C, Olsson L (2014) Lignocellulosic ethanol production at high-gravity: challenges and perspectives. Trends Biotechnol 32(1):46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krivoruchko A, Nielsen J (2014) Production of natural products through metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Opin Biotechnol 35:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuijpers N, Solis-Escalante D, Bosman L, van den Broek M, Pronk JT, Daran J-M, Daran-Lapujade P (2013) A versatile, efficient strategy for assembly of multi-fragment expression vectors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using 60 bp synthetic recombination sequences. Microb Cell Fact 12:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kumar A (2001) Bioengineering of crops for biofuels and bioenergy. In: Bender L, Kumar A (eds) From soil to cell: a broad approach to plant life, pp 14–29. Giessen + Electron. Library GEB,
  58. Kumar A (2007) Calotropis procera (Ait) f. (Akra Sodom Apple). In: Swarup R, Munshi M (eds) Agrotechnology package for bioenergy crops. D.B.T. Govt. of India, New Delhi, pp 24–26Google Scholar
  59. Kumar A (2008) Bioengineering of crops for biofuels and bioenergy. In: Kumar A, Sopory S (eds) Recent advances in plant biotechnology. I.K. International, New Delhi, pp 346–360Google Scholar
  60. Kumar A (2011) Biofuel resources for greenhouse gas mitigation and environment protection. In: Trivedi PC (ed) Agriculture biotechnology. Avishkar Publishers, Jaipur, pp 221–246Google Scholar
  61. Kumar A (2012) Next generation bio-fuels for greenhouse gas mitigation and role of biotechnology, Proc. Natl Conf. Emerging trends in biotechnology and pharmaceutical research. Mangalayatan University, Aligarh. Feb. 18–19, p 38Google Scholar
  62. Kumar A (2013) Biofuels utilisation: an attempt to reduce GHG’s and mitigate climate change. In: Nautiyal S, Kaechele H, Rao KS, Schaldach R (eds) Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp 199–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kumar A (2014) Biotechnology for bio fuels: lignocellulosic ethanol production. J Pharm Sci Innov 3(6):495–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lange JP (2007) Lignocellulose conversion: an introduction to chemistry, process and economics. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 1:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lau MW, Dale BE (2009) Cellulosic ethanol production from AFEX-treated corn stover using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A(LNH-ST). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:1368–1373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Le Borgne S (2012) Genetic engineering of industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recombinant gene expression. Methods Mol Biol 824:451–465Google Scholar
  67. Lienqueo ME, Ravanal MC, Pezoa-Conte R, Cortínez V, Martínez L, Niklitschek T, Mikkola J-P (2016) Second generation bioethanol from Eucalyptus globulus Labill and Nothofagus pumilio: ionic liquid pretreatment boosts the yields. Ind Crop Prod 80:148–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lynd LR, Weimer PJ, van Zyl WH, Pretorius IS (2002) Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:506–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lynd LR, van Zyl WH, McBride JE, Laser M (2005) Consolidated bioprocessing of cellulosic biomass: an update. Curr Opin Biotechnol 16:577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lynd LR et al (2008) How biotech can transform biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maitan-Alfenas GP, Visser EM, Guimaraes VM (2015) Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: converting food waste in valuable products. Curr Opin Food Sci 1:44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Matsuoka S, Ferro J, Arruda P (2009) The Brazilian experience of sugarcane ethanol industry. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 45:372–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McKendry P (2002) Energy production from biomass (part 1): overview of biomass. Bioresour Technol 83:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Menon V, Rao M (2012) Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38:522–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Merino ST, Cherry J (2007) Progress and challenges in enzyme development for biomass utilization. In: Olsson L (ed) Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology. Springer, Berlin, pp 95–120Google Scholar
  76. Mussoline WA, Bohac JR, Boman BJ, Trupia S, Wilkie AC (2017) Agronomic productivity, bioethanol potential and postharvest storability of an industrial sweet potato cultivar. Ind Crop Prod 95:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nakashima T, Ishikawa S (2016) Energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions associated with small-scale farmer sugarcane cropping systems and subsequent bioethanol production in Japan. NJAS – Wagening J Life Sci 76:43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Negash M (2013) Biofuels and food security: micro-evidence from Ethiopia. Energy Policy 61:963–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nevoigt E (2008) Progress in metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 72:379–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nigam PS, Singh A (2011) Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog Energy Combust Sci 37:52–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pauly M, Keegstra K (2008) Cell-wall carbohydrates and their modification as a resource for biofuels. Plant J 54:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ragauskas AJ et al (2006) The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science 311(5760):484–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Raghavi S, Sindhu R, Binod P, Gnansounou E, Pandey A (2016) Development of a novel sequential pretreatment strategy for the production of bioethanol from sugarcane trash. Bioresour Technol 199:202–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Reis VCB, Nicola AM, Neto OdSO Batista VDF, de Moraes LMP, Torres FAG (2012) Genetic characterization and construction of an auxotrophic strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae JP1, a Brazilian industrial yeast strain for bioethanol production. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 39:1673–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Renewable Fuels Association (2015) Global ethanol production, available at:
  86. Roca C, Olsson L (2003) Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 60:560–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Roy A, Kumar A (2013) Pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic materials for biofuel production: a review. J Emerg Trends Eng Appl Sci (JETEAS) 4(2):181–193MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  88. Rubin EM (2008) Genomics of cellulosic biofuels. Nature 454(7206):841–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Saini JK, Saini R, Tewari L (2015) Lignocellulosic agriculture wastes as biomass feedstocks for second-generation bioethanol production: concepts and recent developments. 3 Biotech 5(4):337–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sánchez ÓJ, Cardona CA (2008) Trends in biotechnological production of fuel ethanol from different feedstocks. Bioresour Technol 99:5270–5295Google Scholar
  91. Sato F, Umagai H (2013) Review microbial production of isoquinoline alkaloids as plant secondary metabolites based on metabolic engineering research. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 89(5):165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Serna-Saldıvar SO, Chuck-Hernandez, Cristina, Perez-Carrillo, E, Heredia-Olea E, (2012) Sorghum as a multifunctional crop for the production of fuel ethanol: current status and future trends, bioethanol. Prof. Marco Aurelio Pinheiro Lima (ed), ISBN: 978- 953-51-0008-9, In Tech, Available from: http://www.intechopen
  93. Shaik N, Kumar A (2014) Energy crops for bio fuel and food security. J Pharm Sci Innov 3(6):507–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shen D, Jin W, Hu J, Xiao R, Luo K (2015) An overview on fast pyrolysis of the main constituents in lignocellulosic biomass to valued-added chemicals: structures, pathways and interactions. Renew Sust Energ Rev 51:761–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sheridan C (2013) Big oil turns on biofuels. Nat Biotechnol 31(10):870–873Google Scholar
  96. Siddiqui MS, Thodey K, Trenchard I, Smolke CD (2012) Advancing secondary metabolite biosynthesis in yeast with synthetic biology tools. FEMS Yeast Res 12:144–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sindhu R, Binod P, Pandey A (2016) A novel sono-assisted acid pretreatment of chili post harvest residue for bioethanol production. Bioresour Technol 213:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singh R, Srivastava M, Shukla A (2016) Environmental sustainability of bioethanol production from rice straw in India: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 54:202–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Solomon KV, Haitjema CH, Thompson DA, O’Malley MA (2014) Extracting data from the muck: deriving biological insight from complex microbial communities and non-model organisms with next generation sequencing. Curr Opin Biotechnol 28C:103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stephanopoulos G (2007) Challenges in engineering microbes for biofuels production. Science 315:801–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Switchable butadiene sulfone pretreatment of Miscanthus in the presence of water, co-authored by J. Atilio de Frias and Hao Feng, was published in Green Chemistry (2013, 15:1067–1078)Google Scholar
  102. Takahashi S, Yeo Y, Greenhagen B, McMullin T, Song L et al (2007) Metabolic engineering of sesquiterpene metabolism in yeast. Biotechnol Bioeng 97:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tan IS, Lee KT (2016) Comparison of different process strategies for bioethanol production from Eucheuma cottonii: an economic study. Bioresour Technol 199:336–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Travaini R, Martin-Juarez J, Lorenzo-Hernando A, Bolado Rodriguez S (2016) Ozonolysis: an advantageous pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 199:2–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. United States Department of Agriculture Interagency Agricultural Projections Committee (USDA) (2006) USDA agricultural baseline projections to 2015. Baseline report OCE-2006-1. Office of the Chief Economist, World Agricultural Outlook Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  106. Van Acker R et al (2013) Lignin biosynthesis perturbations affect secondary cell wall composition and saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biotechnol Biofuels 6:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Acker R, Leplé J-C, Aerts D, Storme V, Goeminne G, Ivens B, Boerjan W (2014) Improved saccharification and ethanol yield from fieldgrown transgenic poplar deficient in cinnamoyl-CoA reductase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(2):845–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. van Zyl WH, Lynd LR, den Haan R, McBride JE (2007) Consolidated bioprocessing for bioethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol 108:205–235Google Scholar
  109. Vanholme B et al (2013) Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy. Front Plant Sci 4:174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Waclawovsky AJ, Sato PM, Lembke CG, Moore PH, Souza GM (2010) Sugarcane for bioenergy production: an assessment of yield and regulation of sucrose content. Plant Biotechnol J 8:263–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Waltz E (2010) Biorefineries’ stimulus win. Nat Biotechnol (28):114–115Google Scholar
  112. Wyman CE et al (2005) Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:2026–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zaafouri K, Ziadi M, Ben Farah R, Farid M, Hamdi M, Regaya I (2016) Potential of Tunisian Alfa (Stipa tenacissima) fibers for energy recovery to 2G bioethanol: study of pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation. Biomass Bioenergy 94:66–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang Y-HP (2014) Production of biofuels and biochemicals by in vitro synthetic biosystems: opportunities and challenges. Biotechnol Adv 33:1–17Google Scholar
  115. Zhang HL, Baeyens J, Tan TW (2012) The bubble-induced mixing in starch-to-ethanol fermenters. Chem Eng Res Des 90:2122–2128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhang Z, O’Hara IM, Mundree S, Gao B, Ball AS, Zhu N et al (2016) Biofuels from food processing wastes. Curr Opin Biotechnol 38:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Botany and P.G. School of BiotechnologyUniversity of RajasthanJaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyC.C.S. UniversityMeerutIndia

Personalised recommendations