The Input Oriented Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in Primary and Upper Primary Level of Education in India

  • Arpita Ghose
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Economics book series (BRIEFSECONOMICS)


This chapters estimates input-oriented technical-efficiency (INPTE) of primary, upper-primary education for General-Category-States (GCS), Special-Category-States (SCS) and Union-territories (UT) of India using non-parametric Data-Envelopment Analysis (DEA) creating two frontiers for GCS, SCS&UT over 2005–06 to 2010–11, explains its determinants employing second-stage panel regression and determines the extent of underutilization of inputs. Net-enrolment-ratio, percentage of students getting 60 % marks and above are outputs; number of schools per-lakh population (SPLP), teacher-pupil ratio (PTR), classroom-student ratio (CR), percentages of teachers with qualification graduate and above (TQ) are inputs; quality of both output and input is thus important. Most of the States/UT is technically inefficient; input can be contracted keeping output unchanged. INPTE of not all the States/UT has improved. Input-underutilization is highest for SPLP for three categories/levels and for TQ for one; is lowest for PTR for one category/level and TQ for three. The determinants vary across category/level, highlighting role of policy, infrastructure, social-indicator, state-specific variables and regional variability. The availability and utilization of central grant (AGM), ratio of girls to boys getting free text book, proportion of para-teachers with qualification graduate and above among the total number of teachers, state’s per-capita net-domestic-product-from-service-sector, density-of-population, percentage of school having drinking-water, students getting free text book, proportion of SC teacher to total teacher have a positive effect, while inequality in the distribution of income, proportion of school without building have negative effect on INPTE. AGM has indirect effect through other variables. For SCS&UT-primary there is an optimum-AGM beyond which negative-effect of AGM on INPTE operates.


Data Envelopment Analysis Technical Efficiency Primary Group Primary Level Radial Movement 
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  1. Ray SC (2004) Data envelopment analysis: theory and techniques for economics and operations research. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

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