Advertisement

Graptolites

  • Sreepat Jain
Chapter
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)

Abstract

The Graptolites (grapto = write, lithos = stone) are very small (<1 cm) extinct planktonic and colonial forms (inference based on shape of colonies, theca, and their recovery from deep “bottom” deposits).

Keywords

Black Shale Nerve Cord Colonial Form Gill Slit Successive Fauna 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bates, D.E.B., and A. Urbanek. 2002. The ultrastructure, development, and systematic position of the graptolite genus Mastigograptus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47(3): 445–458.Google Scholar
  2. Bateson, W. 1885. The later stages in the development of Balanoglossus kowalevskii, with a suggestion as to the affinities of the Enteropneusta. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 25: 81–122.Google Scholar
  3. Benton, M., and‎ D.A.T. Harper. 2009. Introduction to Paleobiology and the Fossil Record, 2nd ed., 608 pp. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Bronn, H. G. 1849. Handbuch der Geschichte der Natur. Dritter Band, Zweite Abtheilung. II. Theil: Organisches Leben (Schluß). Index palaeontologicus oder Ueberblick der bis jetzt bekannten fossilen Organismen, 1106 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Bulman, O.M.B. 1938. Graptolithina. In Handbuch der Paläozoologie, vol. 2D, ed. O.H. Schindewolf, 1–92. Berlin: Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  6. Bulman, O.M.B. 1950. Graptolites from the Dictyonema Shales of Quebec. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 106: 63–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bulman, O.M.B. 1955. Graptolithina. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part V, edited by R.C. Moore. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bulman, O.M.B. 1970. Graptolithina. In Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, part V, 2nd ed, ed. C. Teichert. Lawrence: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.Google Scholar
  9. Clarkson, E.N.K. 1983. Invertebrate palaeontology and evolution, 452 pp. Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
  10. Cooper, R.A., and R.A. Fortey. 1982. The Ordovician graptolites of Spitsbergen. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology Series, 36(3):157–302.Google Scholar
  11. Fowler, G.H. 1892. The morphology of Rhabdopleura normani Allm., 293–297. In Festschrift zum 70ten Geburstag Rudolf Leuckarts, 293 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Frazier, W.J., and D.R. Schwimme. 1987. Regional stratigraphy of North America, 744 pp. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Frech, F. 1897. Lethaea geognostica oder Beschreibung und Abbildung für die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. Herausgegeben von einer Vereinigung von Palaeontologen, 1. Teil - Lethaea Palaeozoica, 544–684 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Gegenbaur, C. 1870. Grundzüge der vergleichenden Anatomie. Zweite, umgearbeitete Auflage. 892 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Harmer, S.F. 1905. The Pterobranchia of the Siboga-Expedition with an account of other species. Siboga Expedition Monograph 26: 1–133.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, W.J. 1933. Isograptus caduceus and its allies in Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, New Series 46: 79–114.Google Scholar
  17. Hopkinson, J., and C. Lapworth. 1875. Descriptions of the graptolites of the Arenig and Llandeilo rocks of St. David’s. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society 31: 631–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jaanusson, V. 1960. Graptoloids from the Ontikan and Viruan (Ordov.) limestones of Estonia and Sweden. Bulletin of the Geological Institutions of the University of Uppsala, 38(3–4):289–366.Google Scholar
  19. Kozlowski, R. 1948. Les graptolithes et quelques nouveaux groupes d'animaux du Tremadoc de la Pologne, Palaeontologia Polon 3: 235 p.Google Scholar
  20. Lankester, E.R. 1877. Notes on the embryology and classification of the animal kingdom; comprising a revision of speculations relative to the origin and significance of the germlayers. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, New Series 17: 339–454.Google Scholar
  21. Lapworth, C. 1873a. Notes on the British graptolites and their allies. 1. On an improved classification of the Rhabdophora, part 1. Geological Magazine 10: 500–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lapworth, C. 1873b. Notes on the British graptolites and their allies. 1. On an improved classification of the Rhabdophora, part 2. Geological Magazine 10: 555–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lapworth, C. 1880. On the geological distribution of the Rhabdophora. Part III. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Series, 5(6):185–207.Google Scholar
  24. Lin, Y.K. 1981. New materials of graptodendroids with special reference to the classification of Graptodendroidea. Bulletin of Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Academia Sinica 3: 242–262.Google Scholar
  25. Maletz, J. 2014. The classification of the Pterobranchia (Cephalodiscida and Graptolithina). Bulletin of Geosciences 89(3): 477–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maletz, J. 2015. Graptolite reconstructions and interpretations. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 89(3): 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maletz, J., M. Steiner, and O. Fatka. 2005. Middle Cambrian pterobranchs and the question: what is a graptolite? Lethaia 38: 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maletz, J., J. Carlucci, and C.E. Mitchell. 2009. Graptoloid cladistics, taxonomy and phylogeny. Bulletin of Geosciences 84(1): 7–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mitchell, C.E. 1987. Evolution and phylogenetic classification of the Diplograptacea. Palaeontology 30(2): 353–405.Google Scholar
  30. Mitchell, C.E., M.J. Melchin, C.B. Cameron, and J. Maletz. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Rhabdopleura is an extant graptolite. Lethaia 46: 34–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mu, A.T. 1950. On the evolution and classification of graptolites. Geological Review 15: 171–183.Google Scholar
  32. Mu, A.T. 1957. Some new or little known graptolites from the Ningkuo Shale (Lower Ordovician) of Changshan, Western Chekiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 5(3): 369–437.Google Scholar
  33. Mu, A.T. 1958. Abrograptus, a new graptolite genus from the Hulo Shale (Middle Ordovician) of Kiangshan, western Chekiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 6(3): 259–265.Google Scholar
  34. Nicholson, H.A. 1872b. A monograph of the British Graptolitidae, 144 pp. Blackwood and Sons.Google Scholar
  35. Obut, A.M. 1964. Podtip Stomochordata. Stomokhordovye. In Osnovy paleontogii: Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Pogonophora, Chaetognatha, ed. Y.A. Orlov, 279–337. Moscow: Nedra Press.Google Scholar
  36. Obut, A.M. 1974. New graptolites for the Middle Cambrian of the Siberian Platform. In Graptolite studies in honour of O. M. B. Bulman. Special papers in Palaeontology No. 13, 9–13.Google Scholar
  37. Prothero, D.R. 2013. Bringing fossils to life: an introduction to paleobiology, 672 pp. Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Rigby, S. 1994. Hemichordate skeletal growth, shared patterns in Rhabdopleura and graptoloids. Lethaia 27: 317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sadler, P.M., R.A. Cooper, and M.J. Melchin. 2009. High-resolution, early Paleozoic (Ordovician-Silurian) time scales. Geological Society of America Bulletin 121: 887–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Van Der Horst, C.J. 1936. Planctosphaera and Tornaria. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 78: 605–613.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations