Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


Of the five classes of echinoderm (Fig. 6.1), echinoids are the most diverse and well represented, from shallow waters to abyssal depths. The echinoderm account for 90 % of the biomass even at the depth of ocean trenches; echinoderm are bottom-dwellers except for a few swimming sea cucumbers. They are radially symmetrical in adults, and range from a few mm to more than a meter in diameter and live with their mouth downward-facing.


Brittle Star Apical System Genital Plate Sand Dollar Primary Spine 
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© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New DelhiIndia

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