Bottom-up Nanofabrication

  • Vinod Kumar Khanna
Part of the NanoScience and Technology book series (NANO)


A bottom-up approach to nanofabrication can be looked upon as a synthesis approach mimicking biological processes in which individual atoms are piled up one at a time on the substrate to form molecules. These molecules arrange themselves on their own into the desired form to yield the required nanostructures. The driving mechanisms for this molecular arrangement are the physical and chemical forces operative at the nanoscale. These mechanisms have been perfected by Mother Nature over a period of several millennia. Of particular interest to nanoelectronics are techniques such as sol-gel synthesis, vapour deposition, atomic layer deposition, molecular self-assembly, DNA-assisted assembly and many others. Sol-gel technique offers a simple process to produce nanoparticles. Two forms of vapour-phase techniques are physical vapour deposition in which the active species is evaporated into the vapour phase and chemical vapour deposition in which, a precursor is used which decomposes into the required species via a chemical reaction. Based on successive, self-restricting reaction cycles, atomic layer deposition provides thickness adjustment at nanometer level along with composition control. Molecular self-assembly exploits the organizational capability of matter to form homogeneous monolayers. Physical and chemical vapour deposition constitute self-assembly from gaseous phase. Artificial DNA nanostructures are used to arrange functional nanomaterials into nanoelectronic circuits.


Atomic Layer Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition Anionic Polyelectrolyte Programmable Logic Array Physical Vapor Deposition Process 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Overney R (2010) Nanothermodynamics and Nanoparticle Synthesis NME 498A/A 2010. Accessed 30 Sept 2015
  2. 2.
    Jones AC, Hitchman ML (2009) Chapter 1: Overview of chemical vapour deposition. In: Jones AC, Hitchman ML (eds) Chemical vapour deposition: precursors, processes and applications, Royal Society of Chemistry. Springer, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson RW, Hultqvist A, Bent SF (2014) A brief review of atomic layer deposition: From fundamentals to applications. Mater Today 17(5):236–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oxford Instruments: Atomic Layer Deposition © Copyright 2015. Accessed 27 Sept 2015
  5. 5.
    Lipid Bilayer: Definition, Structure & Function (Chapter 22/Lesson 11). Accessed 27 Sept 2015
  6. 6.
    Hardman J, Lipid Bilayer Copyright © 2015 Fastbleep Ltd. Accessed 27 Sept 2015
  7. 7.
    Ariga K, Hill JP (2008) Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly, A “gentle yet flexible” method toward functional biomaterials. Material Matters 3.3:57, 8 pp. Accessed 28 Sept 2015
  8. 8.
    Love JC, Estroff LA, Kriebel JK et al (2005) Self-assembled monolayers of thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology. Chem Rev 105:1103–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boeckl M, Graham D (2006) Self-assembled monolayers: advantages of pure alkanethiols. Mater Matters 1.2:3. Accessed 28 Sept 2015
  10. 10.
    Jex C (2015) Meet the nano-sized rabbit made of DNA. Accessed 29 Sept 2015
  11. 11.
    Le JD, Pinto Y, Seeman NC et al (2004) DNA-templated self-assembly of metallic nanocomponent arrays on a surface. Nano Lett 4(12):2343–2347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kershner RJ, Bozano LD, Micheel CM et al (2009) Placement and orientation of individual DNA shapes on lithographically patterned surfaces. Nat. Nanotechnol. Aug 1–5. doi: 10.1038/NNANO.2009.220
  13. 13.
    Self-assembled DNA Scaffolding Used To Build Tiny Circuit Boards. Copyright 2015 Science Daily. Accessed 29 Sept 2015

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MEMS and Microsensors GroupCSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research InstitutePilaniIndia

Personalised recommendations