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Tobacco Use and Its Developmental Effects in Children and Adolescents

  • Pratima MurthyEmail author
  • Aniruddha Basu
  • Prabhat Kumar Chand
Chapter

Abstract

Tobacco use often starts in adolescence. Early initiation of tobacco use contributes to significant health morbidity and mortality attributable to tobacco use. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) reports that one among five school-going boys and one in ten girls currently uses tobacco. Developmental animal studies point to the role of nicotine as a gateway drug and its priming effect on future drug use. Psychological factors associated with early use of tobacco include a vulnerable temperament, lower self-efficacy, peer influence, role modelling, and other factors. Social factors include norms and social acceptance. Interview and physical examination for tobacco use should be an integral part of the assessment of adolescents. Specific assessment scales help in determining the severity of nicotine addiction. Preventive approaches, i.e. tobacco-free laws, effective health warnings, restricting access to minors form the mainstay of intervention. Studies on the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions do not suggest significantly positive tobacco cessation outcomes for children and adolescents, except perhaps for the selective use of nicotine replacement for the heavy tobacco using adolescent.

Keywords

Tobacco Children Adolescents Smoking Smokeless Intervention Prevention 

Abbreviation List

WHO

World Health Organization

SEARO

South East Asia Regional Office

NFHS

National Family Health Survey

GYTS

Global Youth Tobacco Survey

GATS

Global Adult Tobacco Survey

DAMS

Drug Abuse Monitoring System

NCPCR

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights

MYTRI

Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco-Related Initiatives

HRIDAY

Health-Related Information Dissemination Among Youth

DANDY

Development and Assessment of Nicotine Dependence in Youth

SECASPS

Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescents Smoking Patterns Study

NDSS

Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale

HONC

Hooked on Nicotine Questionnaire

mFTQ

Modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire

FTND

Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence

IMPACT

Interventional Model for Prevention of Adolescent and Children against Tobacco

SHS

Second-Hand Smoke

THS

Third-Hand Smoke

NoT

Not on Tobacco

NRT

Nicotine Replacement Therapy

ENDS

Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems

COTPA

The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act, 2003

NNS

Nicotine Nasal Spray

Notes

Acknowledgments

Ms Sharanya Mohan for the illustrations.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratima Murthy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aniruddha Basu
    • 1
  • Prabhat Kumar Chand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Addiction MedicineNIMHANSBangaloreIndia

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