Miscellaneous Disorders

  • Varun Gogia
  • Pooja Bansal
  • Pradeep Venkatesh


Splitting of the nerve fiber layer at the macular region is known as macular schisis. It is typically seen in X-linked juvenile retinoschisis and hence more common in males and is almost always bilateral (Eriksson et al. 2004). Characteristic features on fundus examination include radial plication of the internal limiting membrane and microcystoid-like spaces. This is hence often wrongly misdiagnosed as cystoid macular edema. Peripheral retinoschisis, pigmentary degeneration, and beaten metal appearance may be other associated findings (Apushkin et al. 2005).


Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Macular Hole Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Cystoid Macular Edema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Apushkin MA, Fishman GA, Janowicz MJ (2005) Correlation of optical coherence tomography findings with visual acuity and macular lesions in patients with X-linked retinoschisis. Ophthalmology 112:495–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bechmann M, Ehrt O, Thiel MJ et al (2000) Optical coherence tomography findings in early solar retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 84:547–548CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen KC, Jung JJ, Aizman A (2012) High definition spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in three patients with solar retinopathy and review of the literature. Open Ophthalmol J 6:29–35CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Codenotti M, Patelli M, Brancato R (2002) OCT findings in patients with retinopathy after watching a solar eclipse. Ophthalmologica 216:463–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis PL, Jay WM (2003) Optic nerve head drusen. Semin Ophthalmol 18:222–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. de Jong PT, Bistervels B, Cosgrove J, De Grip G, Leys A, Goffin M (1985) Medullated nerve fibers: a sign of multiple basal cell nevi (Gorlin’s) syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol 103:1833–1836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Duke-Elder S (ed) (1963) Congenital deformities. In: System of ophthalmology. Mosby, St LouisGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellis GS, Frey T, Gouterman RZ (1987) Myelinated nerve fibers, axial myopia, and refractory amblyopia: an organic disease. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 24:111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Eriksson U, Larsson E, Holmstrom G (2004) Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of juvenile X-linked retinoschisis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 82:218–223CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Garg SJ, Martidis A, Nelson ML et al (2004) Optical coherence tomography of chronic solar retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 137:351–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hossein M, Bonyadi J, Soheilian R et al (2011) Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography features of mild and severe acute solar retinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 42 Online:e84–86Google Scholar
  12. Johnson LW, Diehl ML, Hamm CW et al (2009) Differentiating optic disc edema from optic nerve head drusen on optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol 127:45–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Karam EZ, Hedges TR (2005) Optical coherence tomography of the retinal nerve fibre layer in mild papilloedema and pseudopapilloedema. Br J Ophthalmol 89:294–298CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kaushik S, Gupta V, Gupta A (2004) Optical coherence tomography findings in solar retinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 35:52–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Moradian S, Karimi S (2009) Unilateral myelinated retinal nerve fiber layer associated with axial myopia, amblyopia and strabismus. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 4:264–265PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Pal N, Azad RV, Sony P et al (2005) Optical coherence tomography-assisted localization of retained intraocular foreign body. Eye (Lond) 19:717–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rishi P, Sharma T, Rishi E et al (2009) Optical coherence tomography for precise localization of in apparent retained foreign body in ocular coats. Retina Cases Brief Rep 3:275–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Salvatore S, Iannetti L, Fragiotta S, Vingolo EM (2011) Optical coherence tomography and myelinated retinal nerve fibers: anatomical description and comparison between time-domain and spectral domain OCT. Minerva Oftalmol 53:31–38Google Scholar
  19. Saxena S, Jain A (2011) Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head with myelinated nerve fibers. J Ocul Biol Dis Infor 4:145–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Sony P, Venkatesh P, Tewari HK et al (2005) Bilateral macular cysts following electric burn. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 33:78–80CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Straatsma BR, Foos FY, Heckenlively JR et al (1981) Myelinated retinal nerve fibers. Am J Ophthalmol 91:25–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Tabassian AR, Reddy CV, Folk JC (1995) Retinal vascular abnormalities associated with myelinated nerve fibers. Invest Ophthalmol Visc Sci 36:594Google Scholar
  23. Tandon M, Agarwal A, Gupta V et al (2013) Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury. Ind J Ophthalmol 61:240–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Turkcuoglu P, Turgut B (2009) Optical coherence tomography in the detection of an intraocular foreign body. Acta Ophthalmologica 87:582–583CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Venkatesh P, Sony P, Tewari HK, Garg SP (2005) Optical coherence tomography in Amikacin-induced macular infarction. Ind J Ophthalmol 53:269–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Witkin AJ, Rogers AH, Ko TH et al (2006) Optical coherence tomography demonstration of macular infarction in sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 124:746–747CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Senior Research AssociatesR.P. Centre AIIMSNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.R.P. Centre AIIMSNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations