Retinal Trauma

  • Carsten H. Meyer
  • Fernando M. Penha
  • Michel E. Farah
  • Peter Kroll


Non-penetrating or closed-globe injuries represent 50–80 % of traumatic eye injuries. Generally, the most affected population is the man under 30 years old. It may occur by several mechanisms thus damaging a variety of different retinal structures. The Ocular Trauma Classification Group defined a standardized classification for frequently used terms based on standard terminology and features of ocular injuries that have demonstrated prognostic significance. In a closed-globe injury, the eye wall does not have a full-thickness wound, and the mechanism of injury may be grouped into two main categories: the direct (anterior) type occurring at the site of the impact and an indirect (posterior) type at the contrecoup injury, which is more commonly found. Several groups investigated the mechanical impact of blunt ocular trauma and reported theories how defined anatomical structures can be damaged (Fig. 27.1). After a traumatic event, the vision can be unaffected or completely lost, depending on the location of the damaged anatomical structure, e.g., choroidal vessels, choriocapillaris, Bruch’s membrane, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and neuroretina (Berg et al. 1989; Mennel et al. 2004; Williams et al. 1990).


Retinal Pigment Epithelium Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Optic Nerve Head Macular Hole Internal Limit Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten H. Meyer
    • 1
  • Fernando M. Penha
    • 2
  • Michel E. Farah
    • 3
  • Peter Kroll
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyPallas KlinikAarauSwitzerland
  2. 2.Bascom Palmer Eye InstituteUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyFederal University of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Department of OphthalmologyPhilipps UniversityMarburgGermany

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