Optic Disc Pit



Optic disc pit is a rare congenital anomaly first described in 1882 by Wiethe (1882). It is reported to have an incidence of 1 in 11,000 seen in an ophthalmic setting (Krivoy et al. 1996) and is unilateral in the majority of cases (Greear 1942; Lincoff et al. 1993) with no gender predilection. It is characterized by an excavation within the optic disc (Fig. 23.1). It is considered part of the spectrum of congenial disc anomalies with morning glory anomaly, juxtapapillary staphyloma and optic disc coloboma (Gass 1987) which are associated with juxtapapillary and macula retinopathy.


Optical Coherence Tomography Optic Disc Macular Hole Posterior Vitreous Detachment Indocyanine Green Angiography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aggio FB et al (2007) New stratus oct findings in extrapapillary excavated anomaly and secondary macular complications. Retina 27:113–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Apple DJ, Rabb MF (1998) Developmental anomalies. In: Ocular pathology: clinical applications and self-assessment, in ocular pathology: clinical applications and self-assessment. Mosby, St Louis, pp 24–26Google Scholar
  3. Brown GC, Shields JA, Goldberg RE (1980) Congenital pits of the optic nerve head. II. Clinical studies in humans. Ophthalmology 87:51–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chang S, Roberts EG, Chen R (2012) Retinal detachment associated with optic disc colobomas and morning glory syndrome. Eye (Lond) 26:494–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi YJ et al (2014) Microstructure of the optic disc pit in open-angle glaucoma. Ophthalmology 121:2098–2106–e2CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Doyle E et al (2009) High-resolution optical coherence tomography demonstration of membranes spanning optic disc pits and colobomas. Br J Ophthalmol 93:360–365CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dureau P et al (2001) Renal coloboma syndrome. Ophthalmology 108:1912–1916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Eccles MR, Schimmenti LA (1999) Renal-coloboma syndrome: a multi-system developmental disorder caused by PAX2 mutations. Clin Genet 56:1–9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehlers JP et al (2011) Analysis of pars plana vitrectomy for optic pit-related maculopathy with intraoperative optical coherence tomography: a possible connection with the vitreous cavity. Arch Ophthalmol 129:1483–1486CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferry AP (1963) Macular detachment associated with congenital pit of the optic nerve head. pathologic findings in two cases simulating malignant melanoma of the choroid. Arch Ophthalmol 70:346–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Gass JD (1969) Serous detachment of the macula. Secondary to congenital pit of the optic nerve head. Am J Ophthalmol 67:821–841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gass JDM (1987) Stereoscopic atlas of macular diseases: diagnosis and treatment. Mosby, St Louis, p 732Google Scholar
  13. Gordon R, Chatfield RK (1969) Pits in the optic disc associated with macular degeneration. Br J Ophthalmol 53:481–489CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Gowdar JP et al (2015) An insight into the pathogenesis of optic disc pit-associated maculopathy with enhanced depth imaging. JAMA Ophthalmol 133:466–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Greear JNJ (1942) Pits, or crater-like holes, in the optic disk. Arch Ophthalmol 28:467–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gregory Roberts EM et al (2013) Optic disk pit morphology and retinal detachment: optical coherence tomography with intraoperative correlation. Retina 33:363–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hirakata A, Okada AA, Hida T (2005) Long-term results of vitrectomy without laser treatment for macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit. Ophthalmology 112:1430–1435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirakata A et al (2012) Vitrectomy without laser treatment or gas tamponade for macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit. Ophthalmology 119:810–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hotta K, Hirakata A, Hida T (1999) Retinoschisis associated with disc coloboma. Br J Ophthalmol 83:124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Imamura Y et al (2010) High-resolution optical coherence tomography findings in optic pit maculopathy. Retina 30:1104–1112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Irvine AR, Crawford JB, Sullivan JH (1986) The pathogenesis of retinal detachment with morning glory disc and optic pit. Retina 6:146–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jain N, Johnson MW (2014) Pathogenesis and treatment of maculopathy associated with cavitary optic disc anomalies. Am J Ophthalmol 158:423–435CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kranenberg EW (1960) Crater-like holes in the optic disc and central serous retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 64:132–144Google Scholar
  24. Kritzinger EE, Beaumont HM (1986) A colour atlas of optic disc abnormalities. Wolfe Medical Publications, London, p 332Google Scholar
  25. Krivoy D et al (1996) Imaging congenital optic disc pits and associated maculopathy using optical coherence tomography. Arch Ophthalmol 114:165–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lincoff H et al (1988) Retinoschisis associated with optic nerve pits. Arch Ophthalmol 106:61–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lincoff H et al (1993) Improvement in visual function after displacement of the retinal elevations emanating from optic pits. Arch Ophthalmol 111:1071–1079CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Michalewski J, Michalewska Z, Nawrocki J (2014) Spectral domain optical coherence tomography morphology in optic disc pit associated maculopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol 62:777–781CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Ohno-Matsui K et al (2013) Evaluation of congenital optic disc pits and optic disc colobomas by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:7769–7778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Pham TQ et al (2007) Optical coherence tomography findings of acute traumatic maculopathy following motor vehicle accident. Am J Ophthalmol 143:348–350CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rutledge BK et al (1996) Optical coherence tomography of macular lesions associated with optic nerve head pits. Ophthalmology 103:1047–1053CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Samimi S et al (2008) Bilateral macular detachment caused by bilateral optic nerve malformation in a papillorenal syndrome due to a new PAX2 mutation. Eur J Ophthalmol 18:656–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Spaide RF, Costa DL, Huang SJ (2003) Macular schisis in a patient without an optic disk pit optical coherence tomographic findings. Retina 23:238–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Spaide RF, Koizumi H, Pozzoni MC (2008) Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 146:496–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Spencer WH (1986) Ophthalmic pathology: an atlas and textbook. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 2355–2357Google Scholar
  36. Sugar HS (1962) Congenital pits in the optic disc with acquired macular pathology. Am J Ophthalmol 53:307–311. Am J Ophthalmol 53:307–311CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sugar HS (1964) An explanation for the acquired macular pathology associated with congenital pits of the optic disc. Am J Ophthalmol 54:833–835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Theodossiadis PG et al (2007) Vitreous findings in optic disc pit maculopathy based on optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 245:1311–1318CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Waldstein SM et al (2015) Comparison of penetration depth in choroidal imaging using swept source vs spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Eye (Lond) 29:409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wiethe T (1882) Ein Fall von angeborener Difformität der Sehnervenpapille. Arch Augenheilkd 11:14–19Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore National Eye CenterSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations