Myopic Macular Pathologies

  • Yasushi Ikuno


Pathological myopia, characterized by elongation of the axial length, is a common cause of social blindness worldwide, especially in East Asian countries. The incidence of high myopia is 5.5 % (>−6.0 diopters [D]) in Japan (Sawada et al. 2008) and 3.3 % (<−5.0D) in China (Xu et al. 2007). Pathological myopia causes various kinds of macular diseases including macular holes with or without retinal detachment, myopic foveoschisis, choroidal neovascularization (CNV), and chorioretinal atrophy.


Optical Coherence Tomography Retinal Pigment Epithelium Retinal Detachment Macular Hole Choroidal Thickness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Asai T, Ikuno Y, Nishida K (2014) Macular microstructures and prognostic factors in myopic subretinal hemorrhages. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:226–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bando H, Ikuno Y, Choi JS et al (2005) Ultrastructure of internal limiting membrane in myopic foveoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 139:197–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benhamou N, Massin P, Haouchine B et al (2002) Macular retinoschisis in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 133:794–800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan WM, Lai TY, Liu DT et al (2009) Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for myopic choroidal neovascularisation: 1-year results of a prospective pilot study. Br J Ophthalmol 93:150–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Curtin BJ (1977) The posterior staphyloma of pathologic myopia. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 75:67–86PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Fujimoto S, Ikuno Y, Nishida K (2013) Postoperative optical coherence tomographic appearance and relation to visual acuity after vitrectomy for myopic foveoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 156:968–973CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao X, Ikuno Y, Fujimoto S et al (2013) Risk factors for development of full-thickness macular holes after pars plana vitrectomy for myopic foveoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 155:1021–1027CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gass JD (1995) Reappraisal of biomicroscopic classification of stages of development of a macular hole. Am J Ophthalmol 119:752–759CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaucher D, Haouchine B, Tadayoni R et al (2007) Long-term follow-up of high myopic foveoschisis: natural course and surgical outcome. Am J Ophthalmol 143:455–462CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Gaucher D, Erginay A, Lecleire-Collet A et al (2008) Dome-shaped macula in eyes with myopic posterior staphyloma. Am J Ophthalmol 145:909–914CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hayashi K, Ohno-Matsui K, Teramukai S et al (2009) Comparison of visual outcome and regression pattern of myopic choroidal neovascularization after intravitreal bevacizumab or after photodynamic therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 148:396–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ikuno Y, Tano Y (2009) Retinal and choroidal biometry in highly myopic eyes with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3876–3880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ikuno Y, Sayanagi K, Oshima T et al (2003) Optical coherence tomographic findings of macular holes and retinal detachment after vitrectomy in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 136:477–481CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ikuno Y, Sayanagi K, Ohji M et al (2004) Vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic foveoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 137:719–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ikuno Y, Gomi F, Tano Y (2005) Potent retinal arteriolar traction as a possible cause of myopic foveoschisis. Am J Ophthalmol 139:462–467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ikuno Y, Sayanagi K, Soga K et al (2008) Foveal anatomical status and surgical results in vitrectomy for myopic foveoschisis. Jpn J Ophthalmol 52:269–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Ikuno Y, Sayanagi K, Soga K et al (2009) Intravitreal bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularization attributable to pathological myopia: one-year results. Am J Ophthalmol 147:94–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ikuno Y, Jo Y, Hamasaki T et al (2010a) Ocular risk factors for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3721–3725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ikuno Y, Nagai Y, Matsuda S et al (2010b) Two-year visual results for older Asian women treated with photodynamic therapy or bevacizumab for myopic choroidal neovascularization. Am J Ophthalmol 149:140–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Ishida S, Yamazaki K, Shinoda K et al (2000) Macular hole retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes: ultrastructure of surgically removed epiretinal membrane and clinicopathologic correlation. Retina 20:176–183CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ishikawa F, Ogino N, Okita K et al (2001) Vitrectomy for macular detachment without macular hole in highly myopic eyes. J Eye (AtarashiiGanka) 18:953–956Google Scholar
  22. Jo Y, Ikuno Y, Nishida K (2012) Retinoschisis: a predictive factor in vitrectomy for macular holes without retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes. Br J Ophthalmol 96:197–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kobayashi H, Kishi S (2003) Vitreous surgery for highly myopic eyes with foveal detachment and retinoschisis. Ophthalmology 110:1702–1707CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumagai K, Furukawa M, Ogino N et al (2010) Factors correlated with postoperative visual acuity after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for myopic foveoschisis. Retina 30:874–880CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lim LS, Tsai A, Wong D et al (2014) Prognostic factor analysis of vitrectomy for retinal detachment associated with myopic macular holes. Ophthalmology 121:305–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Margolis R, Spaide RF (2009) A pilot study of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in normal eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 147:811–815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Maruko I, Iida T, Sugano Y et al (2012) Morphologic analysis in pathologic myopia using high-penetration optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:3834–3838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Mauget-Faÿsse M, Cornut PL, Quaranta El-Maftouhi M et al (2006) Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in tilted disk syndrome and high myopia with staphyloma. Am J Ophthalmol 142:970–975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakanishi H, Kuriyama S, Saito I et al (2008) Prognostic factor analysis in pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment attributable to macular hole in high myopia: a multicenter study. Am J Ophthalmol 146:198–204CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Neelam K, Cheung CM, Ohno-Matsui K et al (2012) Choroidal neovascularization in pathological myopia. Prog Retin Eye Res 31:495–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ohno H (1983) Electron microscopic studies of myopic retinochoroidal atrophies 1. Choroidal changes (in Japanese). Fol Ophthalmol Jpn 43:1244–1253Google Scholar
  32. Ohsugi H, Ikuno Y, Oshima K et al (2014) Morphologic characteristics of macular complications of a dome-shaped macula determined by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 158(1):162–170.e1CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Phillips CI (1958) Retinal detachment at the posterior pole. Br J Ophthalmol 42:749–753CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Ripandelli G, Coppé AM, Fedeli R et al (2001) Evaluation of primary surgical procedures for retinal detachment with macular hole in highly myopic eyes: a comparison of vitrectomy versus posterior episcleral buckling surgery. Ophthalmology 108:2258–2264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sawada A, Tomidokoro A, Araie M et al.; Tajimi Study Group (2008) Refractive errors in an elderly Japanese population: the Tajimi study. Ophthalmology 115:363–370Google Scholar
  36. Sayanagi K, Ikuno Y, Gomi F et al (2005) Retinal vascular microfolds in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 139:658–663CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sayanagi K, Ikuno Y, Tano Y (2006) Tractional internal limiting membrane detachment in highly myopic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 142:850–852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sayanagi K, Morimoto Y, Ikuno Y et al (2010) Spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic findings in myopic foveoschisis. Retina 30:623–628CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schmidt-Erfurth U, Hasan T (2000) Mechanisms of action of photodynamic therapy with verteporfin for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 45:195–214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Shimada N, Tanaka Y, Tokoro T et al (2013) Natural course of myopic traction maculopathy and factors associated with progression or resolution. Am J Ophthalmol 156:948–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Takano M, Kishi S (1999) Foveal retinoschisis and retinal detachment in severely myopic eyes with posterior staphyloma. Am J Ophthalmol 128:472–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Verteporfin in Photodynamic Therapy Study Group (2001) Photodynamic therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia with verteporfin.1-year results of a randomized clinical trial – VIP Report No.1. Ophthalmology 108:841–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. VIP Study Group (2003) Verteporfin therapy of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia: 2-year results of a randomized clinical trial – VIP Report No. 3. Ophthalmology 110:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wakabayashi T, Ikuno Y (2010) Choroidal filling delay in choroidal neovascularisation due to pathological myopia. Br J Ophthalmol 94:611–615CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wolf S, Balciuniene VJ, Laganovska G et al.; RADIANCE Study Group (2014) RADIANCE: a randomized controlled study of ranibizumab in patients with choroidal neovascularization secondary to pathologic myopia. Ophthalmology 121:682–692Google Scholar
  46. Xu L, Li Y, Wang S et al (2007) Characteristics of highly myopic eyes: the Beijing Eye Study. Ophthalmology 114:121–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Yoshida T, Ohno-Matsui K, Yasuzumi K et al (2003) Myopic choroidal neovascularization: a 10-year follow-up. Ophthalmology 110:1297–1305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyOsaka University Medical SchoolOsakaJapan

Personalised recommendations