Macular Hole

  • Alain Gaudric
  • Aude Couturier


Macular hole (MH) is a round full-thickness opening in the foveal center. Idiopathic MH, i.e., due to abnormal vitreofoveal traction, is the most common presentation. The role of the vitreous cortex in the pathogenesis of MH has begun to be better understood with the biomicroscopic observations of JDM Gass (Gass 1988). The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT), which showed the partially detached posterior hyaloid (PH), has clarified the understanding of MH formation. Spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) has subsequently provided more detailed views of the initial foveal changes induced by the vitreofoveal traction. MH classification has been recently simplified and combines the hole diameter and the presence or absence of a residual vitreous traction on its edge (Duker et al. 2013). The terminology used in this chapter to describe OCT images complies with the lexicon proposed by the international OCT consensus (Staurenghi et al. 2014).


Optical Coherence Tomography Macular Hole Cystoid Macular Edema Posterior Hyaloid Macular Hole Surgery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversité Paris 7-Diderot. Sorbonne Paris Cité, and Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HPParisFrance

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