Advertisement

Geographic Atrophy Secondary to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • Moritz Lindner
  • Monika Fleckenstein
  • Julia Steinberg
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
  • Frank G. Holz
Chapter

Abstract

Geographic atrophy (GA) represents a common end stage of various retinal diseases including advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the most common cause of acute severe visual loss in AMD, approximately 20 % of AMD patients who are legally blind have lost central vision due to GA (Friedman et al. 2004; Klaver et al. 1998; Klein et al. 2002; Mitchell et al. 1995; Sunness et al. 1999).

Keywords

Retinal Pigment Epithelium Choroidal Thickness Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Outer Nuclear Layer Inner Nuclear Layer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adhi M, Lau M, Liang MC, Waheed NK, Duker JS (2014) Analysis of the thickness and vascular layers of the choroid in eyes with geographic atrophy using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Retina 34:306–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlers C, Gotzinger E, Pircher M, Golbaz I, Prager F, Schutze C, Baumann B, Hitzenberger CK, Schmidt-Erfurth U (2010) Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:2149–2157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumann B, Gotzinger E, Pircher M, Sattmann H, Schuutze C, Schlanitz F, Ahlers C, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Hitzenberger CK (2010) Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt 15:061704CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bearelly S, Chau FY, Koreishi A, Stinnett SS, Izatt JA, Toth CA (2009) Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of geographic atrophy margins. Ophthalmology 116:1762–1769CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonnet C, Querques G, Zerbib J, Oubraham H, Garavito RB, Puche N, Souied EH (2014) Hyperreflective pyramidal structures on optical coherence tomography in geographic atrophy areas. Retina 34:1524–1530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brar M, Kozak I, Cheng L, Bartsch DU, Yuson R, Nigam N, Oster SF, Mojana F, Freeman WR (2009) Correlation between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence at the margins of geographic atrophy. Am J Ophthalmol 148:439–444CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Q, de Sisternes L, Leng T, Zheng L, Kutzscher L, Rubin DL (2013) Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images. Biom Opt Express 4:2729–2750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chung SE, Kang SW, Lee JH, Kim YT (2011) Choroidal thickness in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 118:840–845CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Coscas F, Puche N, Coscas G, Srour M, Francais C, Glacet-Bernard A, Querques G, Souied EH (2014) Comparison of macular choroidal thickness in adult onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy and age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:64–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Diniz B, Rodger DC, Chavali V, MacKay T, Lee SY, Stambolian D, Sadda SV (2015) Drusen and RPE atrophy automated quantification by optical coherence tomography in an elderly population. Eye (Lond) 29:272–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fleckenstein M, CharbelIssa P, Helb HM, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Finger RP, Scholl HP, Loeffler KU, Holz FG (2008) High-resolution spectral domain-OCT imaging in geographic atrophy associated with age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:4137–4144CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fleckenstein M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Adrion C, Kramer I, Eter N, Helb HM, Brinkmann CK, CharbelIssa P, Mansmann U, Holz FG (2010) Tracking progression with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in geographic atrophy caused by age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 51:3846–3852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fleckenstein M, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Martens C, Kosanetzky S, Brinkmann CK, Hageman GS, Holz FG (2011) Fundus autofluorescence and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography characteristics in a rapidly progressing form of geographic atrophy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:3761–3766CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Forte R, Querques G, Querques L, Leveziel N, Benhamou N, Souied EH (2013) Multimodal evaluation of foveal sparing in patients with geographical atrophy due to age-related macular degeneration. Retina 33:482–489CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Friedman E (1997) A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 124:677–682CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Friedman E (2004) Update of the vascular model of AMD. Br J Ohthalmol 88:161–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Friedman E (2008) The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 146:348–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Friedman DS, O'Colmain BJ, Munoz B, Tomany SC, McCarty C, de Jong PT, Nemesure B, Mitchell P, Kempen J (2004) Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol 122:564–572CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gotzinger E, Pircher M, Geitzenauer W, Ahlers C, Baumann B, Michels S, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Hitzenberger CK (2008) Retinal pigment epithelium segmentation by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography. Opt Express 16:16410–16422CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Green WR, Key SN 3rd (1977) Senile macular degeneration: a histopathologic study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 75:180–254PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Haas P, Esmaeelpour M, Ansari-Shahrezaei S, Drexler W, Binder S (2014) Choroidal thickness in patients with reticular pseudodrusen using 3D-1060 nm OCT maps. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:2674CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Hariri A, Nittala MG, Sadda SR (2014) Outer retinal tubulation as a predictor of the enlargement amount of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 122:407–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hu Z, Medioni GG, Hernandez MT, Hariri A, Wu X, Sadda SR (2013) Segmentation of the geographic atrophy in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence images. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:8375–8383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Jirarattanasopa P, Ooto S, Nakata I, Tsujikawa A, Yamashiro K, Oishi A, Yoshimura N (2012) Choroidal thickness, vascular hyperpermeability, and complement factor H in age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:3663–3672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jonas JB, Forster TM, Steinmetz P, Schlichtenbrede FC, Harder BC (2014) Choroidal thickness in age-related macular degeneration. Retina 34:1149–1155CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Kajic V, Esmaeelpour M, Povazay B, Marshall D, Rosin PL, Drexler W (2012) Automated choroidal segmentation of 1060 nm OCT in healthy and pathologic eyes using a statistical model. Biom Opt Express 3:86–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kang HM, Kwon HJ, Yi JH, Lee CS, Lee SC (2014) Subfoveal choroidal thickness as a potential predictor of visual outcome and treatment response after intravitreal ranibizumab injections for typical exudative age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 157:1013–1021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim SW, Oh J, Kwon SS, Yoo J, Huh K (2011) Comparison of choroidal thickness among patients with healthy eyes, early age-related maculopathy, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, central serous chorioretinopathy, and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Retina 31:1904–1911CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim DY, Fingler J, Zawadzki RJ, Park SS, Morse LS, Schwartz DM, Fraser SE, Werner JS (2013) Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  30. Klaver CC, Wolfs RC, Vingerling JR, Hofman A, de Jong PT (1998) Age-specific prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in an older population: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Ophthalmol 116:653–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Klein R, Klein BE, Tomany SC, Meuer SM, Huang GH (2002) Ten-year incidence and progression of age-related maculopathy: The Beaver Dam eye study. Ophthalmology 109:1767–1779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Koizumi H, Yamagishi T, Yamazaki T, Kawasaki R, Kinoshita S (2011) Subfoveal choroidal thickness in typical age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 249:1123–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee JY, Lee DH, Yoon YH (2013) Correlation between subfoveal choroidal thickness and the severity or progression of nonexudative age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:7812–7818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Lindner M, Bezatis A, Czauderna J, Becker E, Brinkmann CK, Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fimmers R, Holz FG, Fleckenstein M (2015) Choroidal thickness in geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56:875–882CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lujan BJ, Rosenfeld PJ, Gregori G, Wang F, Knighton RW, Feuer WJ, Puliafito CA (2009) Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic imaging of geographic atrophy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Off J Int Soc Imaging Eye. 40:96–101Google Scholar
  36. Maguire P, Vine AK (1986) Geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Am J Ophthalmol 102:621–625CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mahmud MS, Cadotte DW, Vuong B, Sun C, Luk TW, Mariampillai A, Yang VX (2013) Review of speckle and phase variance optical coherence tomography to visualize microvascular networks. J Biomed Opt 18:50901CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Manjunath V, Goren J, Fujimoto JG, Duker JS (2011) Analysis of choroidal thickness in age-related macular degeneration using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 152:663–668CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Margolis R, Spaide RF (2009) A pilot study of enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of the choroid in normal eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 147:811–815CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Michels S, Pircher M, Geitzenauer W, Simader C, Gotzinger E, Findl O, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Hitzenberger CK (2008) Value of polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography in diseases affecting the retinal pigment epithelium. Br J Opthalmol 92:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mitchell P, Smith W, Attebo K, Wang JJ (1995) Prevalence of age-related maculopathy in Australia. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 102:1450–1460CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Mones J, Biarnes M, Trindade F (2012) Hyporeflective wedge-shaped band in geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration: an underreported finding. Ophthalmology 119:1412–1419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Mones J, Biarnes M, Trindade F, Arias L, Alonso J (2013) Optical coherence tomography assessment of apparent foveal swelling in patients with foveal sparing secondary to geographic atrophy. Ophthalmology 120:829–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Moussa K, Lee JY, Stinnett SS, Jaffe GJ (2013) Spectral domain optical coherence tomography-determined morphologic predictors of age-related macular degeneration-associated geographic atrophy progression. Retina 33:1590–1599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Moussa NB, Georges A, Capuano V, Merle B, Souied EH, Querques G (2015) Multi Color imaging in the evaluation of geographic atrophy due to age-related macular degeneration. Br J Ohthalmol 99:842–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Noori J, RiaziEsfahani M, Hajizadeh F, Zaferani MM (2012) Choroidal mapping; a novel approach for evaluating choroidal thickness and volume. J Ophthalmic Vis Res 7:180–185PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Nunes RP, Gregori G, Yehoshua Z, Stetson PF, Feuer W, Moshfeghi AA, Rosenfeld PJ (2013) Predicting the progression of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration with SD-OCT en face imaging of the outer retina. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 44:344–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ooto S, Vongkulsiri S, Sato T, Suzuki M, Curcio CA, Spaide RF (2014) Outer retinal corrugations in age-related macular degeneration. JAMA Ophthalmol 132:806–813CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sarks JP, Sarks SH, Killingsworth MC (1988) Evolution of geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium. Eye (Lond) 2:552–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sayegh RG, Simader C, Scheschy U, Montuoro A, Kiss C, Sacu S, Kreil DP, Prunte C, Schmidt-Erfurth U (2011) A systematic comparison of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence in patients with geographic atrophy. Ophthalmology 118:1844–1851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sayegh RG, Kiss CG, Simader C, Kroisamer J, Montuoro A, Mittermuller TJ, Azhary M, Bolz M, Kreil DP, Schmidt-Erfurth U (2014) A systematic correlation of morphology and function using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry in patients with geographic atrophy. Br J Ophthalmol 98:1050–1055CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M, Helb HM, CharbelIssa P, Scholl HP, Holz FG (2009) In vivo imaging of foveal sparing in geographic atrophy secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50:3915–3921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Schmitz-Valckenberg S, Fleckenstein M, Gobel AP, Hohman TC, Holz FG (2011) Optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence findings in areas with geographic atrophy due to age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52:1–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Schutze C, Ahlers C, Sacu S, Mylonas G, Sayegh R, Golbaz I, Matt G, Stock G, Schmidt-Erfurth U (2011) Performance of OCT segmentation procedures to assess morphology and extension in geographic atrophy. Acta Ophthalmol 89:235–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Schwartz DM, Fingler J, Kim DY, Zawadzki RJ, Morse LS, Park SS, Fraser SE, Werner JS (2013) Phase-variance optical coherence tomography: a new technique for noninvasive angiography. Ophthalmology 121:180–187CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Sigler EJ, Randolph JC (2013) Comparison of macular choroidal thickness among patients older than age 65 with early atrophic age-related macular degeneration and normals. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 54:6307–6313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Spaide RF, Koizumi H, Pozzoni MC (2008) Enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol 146:496–500CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Stetson PF, Yehoshua Z, Garcia Filho CA, PortellaNunes R, Gregori G, Rosenfeld PJ (2014) OCT minimum intensity as a predictor of geographic atrophy enlargement. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55:792–800CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Sunness JS, Bressler NM, Maguire MG (1995) Scanning laser ophthalmoscopic analysis of the pattern of visual loss in age-related geographic atrophy of the macula. Am J Ophthalmol 119:143–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Sunness JS, Gonzalez-Baron J, Applegate CA, Bressler NM, Tian Y, Hawkins B, Barron Y, Bergman A (1999) Enlargement of atrophy and visual acuity loss in the geographic atrophy form of age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 106:1768–1779CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Enzmann V, Brinkmann CK, Wolf S (2008) Morphologic changes in patients with geographic atrophy assessed with a novel spectral OCT-SLO combination. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:3095–3099CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Wood A, Binns A, Margrain T, Drexler W, Povazay B, Esmaeelpour M, Sheen N (2011) Retinal and choroidal thickness in early age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 152:1030–1038.e1032CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Wu Z, Luu CD, Ayton LN, Goh JK, Lucci LM, Hubbard WC, Hageman JL, Hageman GS, Guymer RH (2014) Optical coherence tomography-defined changes preceding the development of drusen-associated atrophy in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 121:2415–2422CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Yehoshua Z, Rosenfeld PJ, Gregori G, Feuer WJ, Falcao M, Lujan BJ, Puliafito C (2011) Progression of geographic atrophy in age-related macular degeneration imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology 118:679–686CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Yehoshua Z, Garcia Filho CA, Penha FM, Gregori G, Stetson PF, Feuer WJ, Rosenfeld PJ (2013) Comparison of geographic atrophy measurements from the OCT fundus image and the sub-RPE slab image. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 44:127–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Zweifel SA, Engelbert M, Laud K, Margolis R, Spaide RF, Freund KB (2009) Outer retinal tubulation: a novel optical coherence tomography finding. Arch Ophthalmol 127:1596–1602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moritz Lindner
    • 1
  • Monika Fleckenstein
    • 1
  • Julia Steinberg
    • 1
  • Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg
    • 1
  • Frank G. Holz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

Personalised recommendations