Retinal Artery Occlusion

  • Weng Onn Chan
  • Jagjit S. Gilhotra
  • Ghazal Ismail
  • Sandeep Saxena


Acute retinal arterial obstruction presents as a sudden, painless monocular loss of vision and/or visual field defect due to involvement of either the central retinal artery, central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), or an arterial branch, branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (von Graefes 1859). CRAO occurs at the rate of 1 per 10,000 outpatient visits in the United States, of which 1–2 % cases are bilateral (Rumelt et al. 1999). Multiple etiologies have been undermined for this condition. Systemic hypertension and valvular heart disease in adults and coagulation defects in young are important causes of embolism causing retinal vasculature obstruction (Augsburger and Magargal 1980; Pfaffenbach and Hollenhorst 1972; Rumelt et al. 1999; Savino et al. 1977).


Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness Macular Thickness Retinal Artery Occlusion Central Retinal Artery Occlusion 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weng Onn Chan
    • 1
  • Jagjit S. Gilhotra
    • 1
  • Ghazal Ismail
    • 2
  • Sandeep Saxena
    • 2
  1. 1.South Australian Institute of OphthalmologyRoyal Adelaide HospitalAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyKing George’s Medical UniversityLucknowIndia

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