Azoospermia: Diagnosis and Management
Azoospermia is one of the major reproductive disorders which cause male infertility in humans; however, the etiology of this disease is largely unknown. The reliable diagnosis of the absence of spermatozoa in a semen sample is an important criterion not only for diagnosing male infertility but also for ascertaining the success of vasectomy and for determining the efficacy of hormonal contraception (Aziz 2013).
KeywordsCystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Seminal Plasma Ejaculatory Duct Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Maturation Arrest
- American Urological Association. The optimal evaluation of the infertile male. Available from: http://www.auanet.org/content/media/optimalevaluation2010.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2012.
- Daudin M, Bieth E, Bujan L, Massat G, Pontonnier F, Mieusset R. Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens: clinical characteristics, biological parameters, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene mutations, and implications for genetic counseling. Fertil Steril. 2000;74(6):1164–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eliasson R. Analysis of semen. In: Burger H, de Kretser D, editors. The testis. New York: Raven; 1981. p. 381–99.Google Scholar
- Goulis DG, Polychronou P, Mikos T, Grimbizis G, Gerou S, Pavlidou V, et al. Serum inhibin-B and follicle stimulating hormone as predictors of the presence of sperm in testicular fine needle aspirate in men with azoospermia. Hormones (Athens). 2008;7(2):140–7.Google Scholar
- Hauser R, Yogev L, Paz G, Yavetz H, Azem F, Lessing JB, et al. Comparison of efficacy of two techniques for testicular sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia: multifocal testicular sperm extraction versus multifocal testicular sperm aspiration. J Androl. 2006;27(1):28–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mafra FA, Christofolini DM, Bianco B, Gava MM, Glina S, Belangero SI, et al. Chromosomal and molecular abnormalities in a group of Brazilian infertile men with severe oligozoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia attending an infertility service. Int Braz J Urol. 2011;37(2):244–50; discussion 250–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Male Infertility Best Practice Policy Committee of the American Urological Association; Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Report on optimal evaluation of the infertile male. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(5 Suppl 1):S202–9.Google Scholar
- Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine in collaboration with Society for Male Reproduction and Urology. The management of infertility due to obstructive azoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(5 Suppl):S121–4.Google Scholar
- Ratbi I, Legendre M, Niel F, Martin J, Soufir JC, Izard V, et al. Detection of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene rearrangements enriches the mutation spectrum in congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens and impacts on genetic counselling. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(5):1285–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Toulis KA, Iliadou PK, Venetis CA, Tsametis C, Tarlatzis BC, Papadimas I, et al. Inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone as markers of persistent spermatogenesis in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: a meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(6):713–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization. WHO laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. 5th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.Google Scholar