Cryopreservation of Human Semen

  • Sasikala Natarajamani


Ever since Spallanzani, the famous Italian biologist in 1776, reported the maintenance of motility of human spermatozoa after exposure to low temperatures. Researchers and embryologists were keen to observe the effect of freezing on sperm viability. Later, Mantegazza (1866) proposed sperm banks for frozen human sperm. But it was Polge’s accidental discovery of glycerol (1949) as a cryoprotectant that laid the foundation for modern sperm cryobiology which accelerated the application of cryopreservation techniques. This was shortly followed by the work of Sherman and Bunge (1953) who observed that human spermatozoa after freeze-drying were able to support normal embryonic development. The first live birth using frozen ejaculated sperm was reported in the year 1953 by Sherman who is also known to have first described liquid nitrogen vapor freezing in the early 1960s (Sherman 1973).


Sperm Motility Human Spermatozoon Fertility Preservation Obstructive Azoospermia Nonobstructive Azoospermia 
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Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.American College of Embryologists Certified LabCrea Conceptions (ACE Certified) (P) LimitedChennaiIndia

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