Sexually Transmitted Infections and Impact on Male Fertility

  • Gulfam Ahmad
  • Stefan S. du Plessis
  • Ashok Agarwal


Microorganisms residing in the male or female genital tracts cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are generally transmitted through unprotected intercourse or other sexual acts. The increasing prevalence of STIs as a whole, and curable STIs in particular, has become a global challenge. A total of 498.9 million cases of curable STIs were reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008 compared to 448.3 million in 2005 indicating an 11.3 % increase in the incidence rate (Fig. 11.1) (WHO 2008).


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Assisted Reproductive Technology Sperm Motility Male Infertility Sperm Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gulfam Ahmad
    • 1
  • Stefan S. du Plessis
    • 2
  • Ashok Agarwal
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Physiology and Cell BiologyUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan
  2. 2.Division of Medical PhysiologyStellenbosch UniversityTygerbergSouth Africa
  3. 3.American Center for Reproductive MedicineCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA

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