Anatomy of the Human Crystalline Lens

  • Nirupama Kasturi
  • Jyoti Matalia


The refracting power of the human eye is contributed by the cornea and the lens. The cornea has greater refractive power which is static, but the lens is a unique biological structure that relies on an extraordinarily intricate arrangement of highly specialized cells to produce a gradient of refractive index that allows for remarkable dynamic focusing of an image with minimal spherical or chromatic aberration [1].


Posterior Capsule Lens Epithelial Cell Chromatic Aberration Lens Capsule Lens Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Kuszak JR, Clark JI, Cooper KE. Biology of the lens: lens transparency as a function of embryology, anatomy, and physiology. In: Azar DT, Rosen ES, editors. Albert Jacobeic’s principle and practise of ophthalmology. 3rd ed. USA: Saunders Elsevier; 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bron AJ, Tripathi RC, Tripath BJ. The lens and zonules. In: Wolff E, Warwick R, editors. Eugene Wolff’s anatomy of the eye and orbit. 8th ed. London: Chapman & Hall Publications; 1997.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tolentino FI, Schepens CL, Mackenzie Freeman H. Biomicroscopic appearance of the normal vitreous body. Vitreoretinal disorders: diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1976.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gray H. The organs of the senses and the common integument. Peripheral organs of the special senses. The organ of sight. The refracting media. In: Lewis WH, editor. Anatomy of the human body. 20th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1918.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown JC, Blecher MH, Glasser DB. Lens and cataract. Basic and clinical science course. American academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco; 2011–2012.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Koretz JF, Handelman GH. How the human eye focuses. Sci Am. 1988;259:92–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Augusteyn RC. On the growth and internal structure of the human lens. Exp Eye Res. 2010;90:643–54.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hogan M, Alvarado J, Weddell J. Histology of the human eye—an atlas and textbook. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1971.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyJawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)PuducherryIndia
  2. 2.Narayana Nethralaya 2Narayana Health CityBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations