Data–Information and Its Presentation
While making curry, one needs to have vegetables, spices, and methodology for preparation of particular curry. Using the same ingredient, rice, vegetables, butter and oil, spices etc., one can make veg-rice or veg fried rice, byriani, or other preparation like pulao, chitranna, etc., depending upon the method used and the intention of the cook. Similarly, for explaining a phenomenon through the extraction of otherwise hidden information from it, one needs to have data. Statistical theories/tools are applied on data to make these informative and hence extraction of information toward explaining a phenomenon under consideration. Thus, the ingredient of statistics is data. Data are known/generated things/facts/figures from which conclusive information are attempted to be drawn. Data requires to be analyzed so that it becomes more and more informative. Data can be obtained from hearsay to results from well-defined and designed research program or investigation. To have objective decision on any phenomenon, it must be based on unbiased and reliable data/information. Reliability of data generally refers to the quality of data that can be documented, evaluated, and believed. If any of these factors is missing, the reliability vis-à-vis the confidence in decision making is reduced. A good quality data should have quantitative accuracy and should be representative, complete, and comparable; all these can be checked only through peer reviewing.