Depression: Correlations with Thyroid Hormones in Major Depressive Disorder
Thyroid hormones (THs) were found to play significant role in brain development and its further functioning in adulthood. Several studies deliver data on THs’ meaning in the pathogeny of major depressive disorder (MDD). Supplementation of THs is considered to augment and accelerate antidepressant treatment. THs transport and signaling act via complicated protein net which can be disturbed at any level. This is to review a contemporary knowledge of THs transport, signaling, metabolism, and role in MDD. The relevant English literature from PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was searched using the terms: thyroid hormones, transporters, receptors, deiodinases, and depression. Own clinical observations of THs significance for depression severity and outcome are also shared. Studies on variability in thyroid function may provide strategies on more efficient, personalized treatment in MDD patients.
KeywordsThyroid Hormone Major Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Disorder Subclinical Hypothyroidism Major Depressive Disorder Patient
The author have no competing interests to declare.
- 10.Maes M, Vandewoude M, Maes L, Schotte C, Cosyns P. A revised interpretation of the TRH test results in female depressed patients. Part I: TSH responses. Effects of severity of illness, thyroid hormones, monoamines, age, sex hormonal, corticosteroid and nutritional state. J Affect Disord. 1989;16(2–3):203–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 11.Forrest D, Nunez J. Thyroid hormone and transcriptional regulation in the CNS. Encycl Neurosci. 2009;993–1000.Google Scholar
- 17.Friesema EC, Jachtenberg JW, Jansen J. Human monocarboxylate transporter 10 does transport thyroid hormone. Thyroid. 2006;16(913):167.Google Scholar
- 27.Philibert RA, Beach SR, Gunter TD, Todorov AA, Brody GH, Vijayendran M, Elliott L, Hollenbeck N, Russell D, Cutrona C. The relationship of deiodinase 1 genotype and thyroid function to lifetime history of major depression in three independent populations. Am J Med Genet B. 2011;156B(5):593–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Cooper-Kazaz R, van der Deure WM, Medici M, Visser TJ, Alkelai A, Glaser B, Peeters RP, Lerer B. Preliminary evidence that a functional polymorphism in type 1 deiodinase is associated with enhanced potentiation of the antidepressant effect of sertraline by triiodothyronine. J Affect Disord. 2009;116:113–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Panicker V, Cluett C, Shields B, Murray A, Parnell KS, Perry JRB, Weedon MN, Singleton A, Hernandez D, Evans J, Durant C, Ferrucci L, Melzer D, Saravanan P, Visser TJ, Ceresini G, Hattersley AT, Vaidya B, Dayan CM, Frayling TM. A common variation in Deiodinase 1 gene DIO1 is associated with the relative levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(8):3075–81.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 40.Tsuru J, Ishitobi Y, Ninomiya T, Kanehisa M, Imanaga J, Inoue A, Okamoto S, Maruyama Y, Higuma H, Tanaka Y, Hanada H, Isogawa K, Akiyoshi J. The thyrotropin releasing hormone test may predict recurrence of clinical depression within ten years after discharge. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34(5):409–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar