Advertisement

Understanding the Biologically Adaptive Side of Mood Disorders: A Focus on Affective Temperaments

  • Xenia Gonda
  • Gustavo H. Vazquez
Chapter

Abstract

There is an expanding interest in the evolutionary aspects of psychiatric illnesses including affective disorders in an effort to understand why these conditions, which carry a disadvantage in terms of reproduction and adaptation, or why their frequency does not show a decrease from generation to generation and how these conditions do not tend gradually to disappear. Each of the affective phases has several advantageous characteristics enhancing fitness and adaptation as do affective disorders as well. However, mood disorders are complex and multifaceted which have a polygenic and multifactorial background; therefore decomposing them into more atomic characteristics aids the separation and better understanding of their adaptive aspects. Approaching affective illness from the aspect of affective temperaments helps this decomposition and also the understanding of how pathological symptoms may have their roots in adaptation to environmental and also social challenges. Such a perspective on affective disorders helps not only their better understanding, but also promises a differential approach to prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment, as well as reducing the stigma associated with these mental illnesses.

Keywords

Affective Disorder Depressive State Social Rank Affective Illness Seasonal Affective Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Adriaens PR. Evolutionary psychiatry and the schizophrenia paradox: a critique. Biol Philos. 2007;22(4):513–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akiskal H, Khani MK, Scott-Strauss A. Cyclothymic temperamental disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1979;2:527–54.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akiskal HS. Personality and anxiety disorders. Psychiatry Psychobiol. 1988;3:161–6.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akiskal HS. Proposal for a depressive personality (temperament). In: Tyrer P, Stein G, editors. Personality disorders reviewed. London: Gaskell; 1993. p. 165–79.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akiskal HS. The temperamental foundations of affective disorders. In: Mundt C, Freeman HL, editors. Interpersonal factors in the origin and course of affective disorders. London: Gaskell; 1996. p. 3–30.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of generalized anxiety disorder as an anxious temperament type. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1998;393:66–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Akiskal HS. Toward a definition of generalized anxiety disorder as an anxious temperament type. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998;98:66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Akiskal HS. Dysthymia, cyclothymia and related chronic subthreshold mood disorders. In: Gelder M, Lopez-Ibor J, Andreasen N, editors. New Oxford textbook of psychiatry. London: Oxford University Press; 2000. p. 736–49.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Akiskal HS. Dysthymia and cyclothymia in psychiatric practice a century after Kraepelin. J Affect Disord. 2001;62(1–2):17–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal K, Allilaire JF, Azorin JM, Bourgeois ML, Sechter D, Fraud JP, Chatenet-Duchene L, Lancrenon S, Perugi G, Hantouche EG. Validating affective temperaments in their subaffective and socially positive attributes: psychometric, clinical and familial data from a French national study. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):29–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Cyclothymic, hyperthymic and depressive temperaments as subaffective variants of mood disorders. In: Tasman A, Riba MB, editors. Annual review, vol. II. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1992. p. 43–62.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. Cyclothymic, hyperthymic and depressive temperaments as subaffective variants of mood disorders. In: Tasman A, Riba MB, editors. Annual review, vol. II. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press; 1992. p. 43–62.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. TEMPS: temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Akiskal HS, Akiskal KK. In search of Aristotle: temperament, human nature, melancholia, creativity and eminence. J Affect Disord. 2007;100(1–3):1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akiskal HS, Mallya G. Criteria for the “soft” bipolar spectrum: treatment implications. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1987;23(1):68–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akiskal HS, Mendlowicz MV, Jean-Louis G, Rapaport MH, Kelsoe JR, Gillin JC, Smith TL. TEMPS-A: validation of a short version of a self-rated instrument designed to measure variations in temperament. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):45–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Akiskal HS, Pinto O. The evolving bipolar spectrum – prototypes I, II, III, and IV. Psychiatr Clin N Am. 1999;22(3):517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The theoretical underpinnings of affective temperaments: implications for evolutionary foundations of bipolar disorder and human nature. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):231–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Allen NB, Badcock PBT. The social risk hypothesis of depressed mood: evolutionary, psychosocial, and neurobiological perspectives. Psychol Bull. 2003;129(6):887–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alloy LB, Abramson LY. Depressive realism: four theoretical perspectives. In: Alloy LB, editor. Cognitive processes in depression. New York: Guilford Press; 1988. p. 433–65.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andreasen NC. Creativity and mental illness: prevalence rates in writers and their first-degree relatives. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144(10):1288–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brune M. Schizophrenia-an evolutionary enigma? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2004;28(1):41–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chiao JY, Blizinsky KD. Culture-gene coevolution of individualism-collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene. Proc Biol Sci/R Soc. 1681;277:529–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cloninger CR, Svrakic DM, Przybeck TR. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50(12):975–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coryell W, Endicott J, Keller M, Andreasen N, Grove W, Hirschfeld RM, Scheftner W. Bipolar affective disorder and high achievement: a familial association. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(8):983–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davis C, Levitan RD. Seasonality and seasonal affective disorder (SAD): an evolutionary viewpoint tied to energy conservation and reproductive cycles. J Affect Disord. 2005;87(1):3–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eagles JM. Seasonal affective disorder: a vestigial evolutionary advantage? Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(5):767–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Eisenberg DP, Kohn PD, Baller EB, Bronstein JA, Masdeu JC, Berman KF. Seasonal effects on human striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis. J Neurosci: Off J Soc Neurosci. 2010;30(44):14691–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Erfurth A, Gerlach AL, Hellweg I, Boenigk I, Michael N, Akiskal HS. Studies on a German (Munster) version of the temperament auto-questionnaire TEMPS-A: construction and validation of the brief TEMPS-M. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):53–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fleeson W, Cantor N. Goal relevance and the affective experience of daily-life – ruling out situational explanations. Motiv Emot. 1995;19(1):25–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gardner R. Evolutionary perspectives on stress and affective disorder. Sem Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2001;6:32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gardner Jr R. Mechanisms in manic-depressive disorder: an evolutionary model. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982;39(12):1436–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gonda X, Rihmer Z, Zsombok T, Bagdy G, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. The 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene is associated with affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. J Affect Disord. 2006;91(2–3):125–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gonda X, Vazquez GH, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. From putative genes to temperament and culture: cultural characteristics of the distribution of dominant affective temperaments in national studies. J Affect Disord. 2011;131(1–3):45–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goodwin FK, Jamison KR, Ghaemi SN. Manic-depressive illness: bipolar disorders and recurrent depression. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gudykunst WB, Chua E, Ting-Toomey S. Culture and interpersonal communication. Newbury Park: Sage Communications; 1988.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hagen EH. The bargaining model of depression. in: Hammerstein P, editor. Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Cambridge: MIT Press; 2003. p. 95–123.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Healy D, Waterhouse JM. The circadian system and affective disorders: clocks or rhythms? Chronobiol Int. 1990;7(1):5–10. discussion 11-24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2005.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Irwin MR, Miller AH. Depressive disorders and immunity: 20 years of progress and discovery. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21(4):374–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kesebir S, Vahip S, Akdeniz F, Yuncu Z, Alkan M, Akiskal H. Affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A in patients with bipolar I disorder and their first-degree relatives: a controlled study. J Affect Disord. 2005;85(1–2):127–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Klinger E. Consequences of commitment to and disengagement from incentives. Psychol Rev. 1975;82(1):1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Le Bas J, Castle D, Newton R, O'Loughlin D. Prestige and bipolarity. Australas Psychiatry. 2013;21(5):456–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Levitan RD. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007;9(3):315–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nesse RM. Is depression an adaptation? Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000;57(1):14–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Niculescu AB, Akiskal HS. Sex hormones, Darwinism, and depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(11):1083–4. author reply 1085-1086.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Possl J, Vonzerssen D. A case-history analysis of the manic type and the melancholic type of premorbid personality in affectively Ill patients. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1990;239(6):347–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Price J. The dominance hierarchy and the evolution of mental illness. Lancet. 1967;2:243–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Richards R, Kinney DK, Lunde I, Benet M, Merzel AP. Creativity in manic-depressives, cyclothymes, their normal relatives, and control subjects. J Abnorm Psychol. 1988;97(3):281–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rothenberg A. Creativity and madness: new findings and old stereotypes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1990.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sher L. The role of genetic factors in the etiology of seasonality and seasonal affective disorder: an evolutionary approach. Med Hypotheses. 2000;54(5):704–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sherman JA. Evolutionary origin of bipolar disorder-revised: EOBD-R. Med Hypotheses. 2012;78(1):113–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stevens A, Price J. Evolutionary psychiatry: a new beginning. 2nd ed. London: Routledge; 2000.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vazquez GH, Kahn C, Schiavo CE, Goldchluk A, Herbst L, Piccione M, Saidman N, Ruggeri H, Silva A, Leal J, Bonetto GG, Zaratiegui R, Padilla E, Vilaprino JJ, Calvo M, Guerrero G, Strejilevich SA, Cetkovich-Bakmas MG, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Bipolar disorders and affective temperaments: a national family study testing the “endophenotype” and “subaffective” theses using the TEMPS-A Buenos Aires. J Affect Disord. 2008;108(1–2):25–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Vazquez GH, Tondo L, Mazzarini L, Gonda X. Affective temperaments in general population: a review and combined analysis from national studies. J Affect Disord. 2012;139(1):18–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vellante M, Zucca G, Preti A, Sisti D, Rocchi MB, Akiskal KK, Akiskal HS. Creativity and affective temperaments in non-clinical professional artists: an empirical psychometric investigation. J Affect Disord. 2011;135(1–3):28–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Watson PJ, Andrews PW. Toward a revised evolutionary adaptationist analysis of depression: the social navigation hypothesis. J Affect Disord. 2002;72(1):1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Way BM, Lieberman MD. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010;5(2–3):203–11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wehr TA. Reply to – Healy, D. and Waterhouse, J.M.: the circadian system and affective disorders: clocks or rhythms? Chronobiol Int. 1990;7:11–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wehr TA. Photoperiodism in humans and other primates: evidence and implications. J Biol Rhythms. 2001;16(4):348–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wehr TA, Rosenthal NE. Seasonality and affective illness. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(7):829–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wehr TA, Sack DA, Rosenthal NE. Sleep reduction as a final common pathway in the genesis of mania. Am J Psychiatry. 1987;144(2):201–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wittman D. Darwinian depression. J Affect Disord. 2014;168:142–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapySemmelweis UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Laboratory of Suicide Research and PreventionNational Institute for Psychiatry and AddictologyBudapestHungary
  3. 3.International Consortium for Bipolar and Psychotic Disorder ResearchMcLean HospitalBelmontUSA
  4. 4.Department of NeurosciencePalermo UniversityBuenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations