Ethnic Fermented Foods and Beverages of Mongolia

  • Sh. Demberel
  • D. Narmandakh
  • N. Davaatseren


Mongolians prepare a variety of products from the milk of their livestock through traditional methods. Milk beverages are a large share of this heritage that has been passed down. This chapter contains information and research results about the milk beverages that Mongolians produce from livestock. Mongolian’s geography in the Central Asian plateau, its climate conditions, and the animal husbandry context are compiled in this chapter. The author has tried to include more information about fermented milk products that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria and other microorganisms with the help of starter cultures. This method has been passed down by generations of Mongolians. In this chapter, research results from local Mongolian livestock milk products are introduced, and later on the fermentation technology of using starter cultures to make tarag, fermented mares’ milk or fermented camels’ milk, is introduced. The milk of cattle, sheep, and goats is fermented to make tarag (similar to yogurt), mares’ milk is fermented to brew a slightly alcoholic beverage, camels’ milk is fermented to make hoormog, and cattle’s milk is fermented to make a beverage. In addition to this, research results of fermented beverages prepared by Mongolian herders through traditional methods and their components of microorganisms, that is, lactic acid bacteria, are presented. The technology and equipment used by Mongolians to prepare fermented milk are presented with photographs.


Lactic Acid Bacterium Dairy Product Milk Product Milk Yield Fermented Milk 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baldorji, R. (1988). Laboratory methods in Koumiss quality analysis. Journal Selskohozjast- vennaja nauka, 3, 30–35 s, Moscow.Google Scholar
  2. Baldorji, R., & Namsrai, T. (1980). Mongol airag. Ulaanbaatar: Press of Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  3. Basic Health Publications user’s guide to probiotics, by Mindell, E (2004). North Bergen, NJ.Google Scholar
  4. Batsukh, T. (1995). Processing of camel milk. Ulaanbaatar: Interpress.Google Scholar
  5. Bondarenko, B. M., & Matsulevich, T. B. (2007). Disbacterioz kishechnika kak kliniko- laboratornii sindrom sovremennoe sostoenie problemi. M., 304 s.Google Scholar
  6. Damdinsuren, L. (2010). Mongoliin eseg tsagaan ideenii microbiologiin toim. “Bichil bietnii ekologi, olon yanziin baidal, biologiin idevhi “sedevt erdem shinjilgeenii baga hurald tavisan iltgel. SHUA,Biologiin hureelen. Ulaanbaatar, 2010 on.Google Scholar
  7. Damdinsuren, L. (2014). Suu tsagaan ideenii shinjleh uhaan, technologiin tailal. Mongolia: Ulaanbaatar.Google Scholar
  8. Demberel, Sh., & Dugersuren, J. (2014) Use of probiotics from lactic acid bacteria. Book of Fourth International conference on “Current advances in microbiology and immunology”. Ulaanbaatar Mongolia, 19–21 June 2014.Google Scholar
  9. Demberel, Sh. (2015). Ashigtai nyang (probioticiig) hereglehiin uchir holbogdol. Mongoliin mal emneleg setguul № 03–05, 55–57 h.Google Scholar
  10. Gombo, G (1985). Optimization of location and rational technology choice of milk manufacturers in People’s Republic of Mongolia. Thesis of dissertation Ph. D, Gumboldt’s University (former name) in Berlin Germany.Google Scholar
  11. Gombodash, T. (1996). Practical handbook of Mongolian traditional food for enjoining taste’s. Ulaanbaatar: Printing House of the State’s Standard.Google Scholar
  12. Indra, R (1983). Suu, suun buteegdehuun. Ulaanbaatar: Ardiin Bolovsroliin Yamnii hevle, 205 h.Google Scholar
  13. Indra, R. (2000). Suu, tsagaan idee. Ulaanbaatar: Altan Useg. 300 h.Google Scholar
  14. Indra, R., Tsoodol, D., & Baldorji, R. (1988). Hunsnii microbiologiin arguud. Ulaanbaatar: Altan Useg.Google Scholar
  15. Jambaajamts, B. (1989). Mongol orni uur amsgal. Ulaanbaatar.Google Scholar
  16. Ministry of Agriculture of Mongolia. (1995–1999). Mongolia dairy products. Report of science-technological project. Ulaanbaatar.Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Agriculture of Mongolia. (1999). White revolution. The government of Mongolia the decision 103th implementation of national program, Ulaanbaatar. Зacгийн гaзpын 1999 oны 105 дугaap тoгтooлын 1 дүгээp xaвcpaлт. ЦAГAAH XУBЬCГAЛ ҮHДЭCHИЙ XӨTӨЛБӨP.Google Scholar
  18. Ministry of Agriculture of Mongolia. (2000). “Milk, dairy products”. Collection of theoretical and practical conference’s report. Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia in the twentieth century by Kotkin, S., & Elleman, B. A., USA., New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  19. Mongolia in the twentieth century by Kotkin, S., & Elleman, B. A., USA., New York, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. Nakae, T. (1987). Further studies on chemical and biochemical properties of Mongolian milk and milk products. Journal of Korean Dairy technology, 5(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  21. Nakae, T. (1988). Chemical and biochemical properties of Mongolian milk and milk products. Journal of Korean Dairy Technology, 5(2), 117–128.Google Scholar
  22. Nansalmaa, D., & Damdinsuren, L.. (1998). Mongoliin suunii uildveriin hetiin tuluv.Onol uildverleliin baga hurliin emhetgel., Ulaanbaatar.Google Scholar
  23. Narmandakh, D. (2005). Traditional foods by lactic acid bacteria in Mongolia. M.S. thesis, University of Kolorado at Denver.Google Scholar
  24. Nyamaa, D. (1980). Mongoliin suun buteegdehuunii uildverlel. Ulaanbaatar: Ulsiin hevleliin gazar.Google Scholar
  25. Ongoodoi, Ch. (1991). Culinary Excursions through of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar, (translate from Inner Mongolia).Google Scholar
  26. Tarakanov, B. V. (1998). Use probiotics in the animal husbandry. Kaluga.Google Scholar
  27. Tsendsuren, C. (1989). Honinii suunii himiin nairlaga, shinj chanar. Ulaanbaatar: Urlakh erdem.Google Scholar
  28. Tsevel, Y. (1936). Mongoliin suun buteegdehuunm. Ulaanbaator: Ulsiin hevleliin gazar.Google Scholar
  29. Tsoodol, D., & Munkhtuya, P. (1974). Mongol taragnii microflor. Erdem shinjilgeenii tailan/1971-1974/. MAAEH. Ulaanbaatar: Gar bichmel.Google Scholar
  30. Watanabe, K., Fujimoto, J., Sasamoto, M., Dugersuren, J., & Demberel, S. (2008). Diversity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in Airag and Tarag, traditional fermented milk products of Mongolia. World Journal Microbiology, Biotechnology (24), 1313–1325. Internet Resources,,

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mongolian University of Life SciencesUlaanbaatarMongolia
  2. 2.Department of Strategic Policy and PlanningMinistry of Food and AgricultureUlaanbaatarMongolia

Personalised recommendations