Advertisement

Ethnic Fermented Foods and Beverages of Thailand

  • Werasit Sanpamongkolchai
Chapter

Abstract

The Kingdom of Thailand, located in the Southeast Asian region, has her own cultural foods. Thai food is especially recognized as healthy food because it contains various kinds of spices and herbs that resulted in the unique aroma and taste. Besides that, Thailand has different ways of consuming food depending on the region or areas. Thailand also has many varieties of traditional fermented foods and beverages with different purposes. Nampla (fish sauce) is the most popular sauce in Thailand; almost every household uses it as a condiment or seasoning for cooking. Nampla can be traditionally produced by using small pelagic fish mixed with solar salt and aged for 8–18 months. Fish sauce is clear liquid with a reddish-brown color, is salty, and has a unique flavor with 23 % salt content. Another traditional product is Sato (rice wine) which is popular in the northeastern area especially for farmers. The main raw materials of Sato are Loogpaeng (Thai traditional fermentation starter), glutinous rice, and water. After fermentation for 2 weeks, the obtained Sato will have an alcohol content of about 7–10 %. Loogpaeng is used as Sato starter and consists of flour, selected herbs, and natural microorganisms such as fungus, bacteria, and yeast. Since it is produced in the household through a non-aseptic technique, therefore the quality of Loogpaeng is not uniform and results in the nonconsistent quality of Sato.

Keywords

Alcoholic Beverage Rice Wine Fish Sauce Glutinous Rice Small Pelagic Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Amano, K. (1962). The influence of fermentation on the nutritive value of fish with special reference to fermented fish products of Southeast Asia. In E. Heen & R. Kreuzer (Eds.), Fish in nutrition (pp. 180–200). London: Fishing News (Books).Google Scholar
  2. Aroonpiroj, T. (1997). Proteolytic enzymes in traditional fish sauce fermentation. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Mahidol University.Google Scholar
  3. Bovornreungroj, P., & Kanlayakrit, W. (2005). Chemical characteristics of fish sauce prepared with halophilic protease from Halobacterium salinarum PB407. In Abstract of bio Thailand, Queen Sirikrit National Convention Center, 2–5 November 2005, Bangkok.Google Scholar
  4. Changpha, W. (2011). Effect of Thai herbs and mixed culture for Loog-pang Lao production. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  5. Chaownsungket, M. (1978). Selection of yeast and mold strains for rice wine production. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  6. Chatisatienr, C. (1977) Selection of yeast and mold strains for rice wine production. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  7. Choorit, W., & Prasertsan, P. (1992). Characterization of protease produced by newly isolated and identified proteolytic microorganisms from fermented fish (Budu). World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8, 284–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chotwanawirach, T. (1980). A microbioligical study on the Thai traditional fermented food product: Kapi. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  9. Crisan, E. V., & Sands, A. (1975). Microflora of four fermented fish sauces. Applied Microbiology, 29(1), 106–108.Google Scholar
  10. Davis, H. K. (1995). Quality and deterioration of raw fish. In A. Ruiter (Ed.), Fish and fishery products: Composition, nutritive properties and stability (pp. 215–242). Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  11. Hobbs, G. (1991). Fish: Microbiological spoilage and safety. Food Science and Technology Today, 5, 166–173.Google Scholar
  12. Hongthongdaeng, P. (1979). A microbiological study on the Thai traditional fermented food product: Pla-ra. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  13. Itoh, H., Hadioetomo, R. S., Nikkuni, S., & Okada, N. (1985). Studies on the lactic acid bacteria in fish sauce (part 1): Chemical composition and microflora of fish sauce. Reports of National Food Research Institute, 47, 23–30.Google Scholar
  14. Jantra, J. (2006). Production of Lookpang-lao in pilot scale. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  15. Kanlayakrit, W., & Boonpan, A. (2008). Purification and characterization of halophilic lipase from halototerant Staphylococcus warneri PB233. In: Abstracts of the 46th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, 29 Jan – 1 Feb 2008.Google Scholar
  16. Kanlayakrit, W., & Booranasawettatham, S. (2004). Screening of enzyme and alcohol producing microorganisms from Thai traditional fermentation starter (Lookpang) for Sato industry. In: Abstracts of the 42nd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, 3–6 Feb 2004.Google Scholar
  17. Kanlayakrit, W., & Booranasawettatham, S. (2005). Identification of yeasts and molds isolated from Thai traditional fermentation starter (Lookpang) for Sato industry. In: Abstracts of the 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, 1–4 Feb 2005.Google Scholar
  18. Kanlayakrit, W., & Bovornreungroj, P. (2002). Isolation of extremely halophilic bacteria producing salt-loving protease for fish sauce. In: Abstract of the 40th Kasetsart University annual conference, Bangkok, 4–7 February 2002. Google Scholar
  19. Kanlayakrit, W., & Bovornreungroj, P. (2003). Selection of extremely halophilic bacteria producing salt-loving protease for fish sauce fermentation. In: Proceeding of the 41th Kasetsart University annual conference, (pp. 185–192). Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  20. Kanlayakrit, W. & Changpha, W. (2010). Effect of crude extract of Thai herbs on microbial growth in Thai traditional fermentation starter (Loog-Pang). In: Abstracts of the 48th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok, 3–5 Feb 2010.Google Scholar
  21. Kanlayakrit, W. & Laohawattanawanit, P. (2006). Utilization of low quality rice in fermented soy sauce industry. In: Abstracts of the 44th Kasetsart University annual conference, Bangkok, 30 January–2 February 2006. Google Scholar
  22. Kanlayakrit, W., & Phromsak, K. (2014). Novel conditions for tofu and pehtze preparation to overcome bacterial contamination in pehtze. International Food Research Journal, 21(1), 335–342.Google Scholar
  23. Kanlayakrit, W., Nakahara, K., Teramoto, Y., & Hayashida, S. (1989). Raw starch-digesting glucoamylase from Amylomyces sp. 4-2 isolated from Loogpang Kaomag in Thailand. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 33, 177–187.Google Scholar
  24. Kanlayakrit, W., Ikeda, T., Tojai, S., Rodprapakorn, M., & Sirisansaneeyakul, S. (2001). Production and characterization of extracellular halophilic ribonuclease from halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. Bulletin of National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 10(4), 281–289.Google Scholar
  25. Kanlayakrit, W., Boonpan, A., Ikeda, T., & Tojai, S. (2002). Production and characterization of purified halophilic ribonuclease from halotolerant Pseudomonas sp. isolated from fish sauce. In: Abstracts of the 40th Kasetsart University annual conference, Bangkok, 4–7 February 2002.Google Scholar
  26. Kanlayakrit, W., Bovornreungroj, P., Oka, T., & Goto, M. (2004). Production and characterization of protease from extremely halophilic Halobacterium sp. PB407. Kasetsart Journal, 38, 15–20.Google Scholar
  27. Kanlayakrit, W., Changpha, W., Rodprapakorn, M., & Sirirote, P. (2011). The study of mixed culture for Thai traditional fermentation starter (Loog-Pang) production. In: Abstracts of the 49th Kasetsart University annual conference, Bangkok, 1–4 February 2011.Google Scholar
  28. Kanlayakrit, W., Wadeesirisak, K., & Rodprapakorn, M. (2013). Characterization of purified protease from moderately and extremely of halophilic bacteria isolated from Fish Sauce. In: Abstracts of the 51st Kasetsart University annual conference, Bangkok, 5–7 Feb 2013. Google Scholar
  29. Krusong, W. (2014). Starter cultures. In J. D. Owens (Ed.), Indigenous fermented foods of Southeast Asia. Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kwanmuang, P. (2003). Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from Nham sample in Thailand for use as starter culture. Ph.D. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  31. Lebez, D., Kopitar, M., Turk, V., & Kregar, I. (1971). Comparison of properties of cathepsin D and E with some new cathepsin. In A. J. Barret & J. T. Dingle (Eds.), Tissue proteinases (pp. 167–185). Amsterdam: North- Holland.Google Scholar
  32. Liptasiri, S. (1975). Studies on some properties of certain bacteria isolated from Thai fish sauce. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  33. Lotong, N. (1992). Seed inoculum and their production technology (in Thai). Bangkok: Funny.Google Scholar
  34. Maneepun, S. (1993). Research and development of a traditional animal food product in Southeast Asia. In P. Ingkaninun and P. Poomvises (Eds.), Proceeding of the 11th international symposium of the world association of veterinary food hygienists. Bangkok.Google Scholar
  35. Mclver, R., Brooks, R. I., & Reineccius, G. A. (1982). The Flavor of fermented fish sauce. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 30(6), 1017–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the kingdom of Thailand. (2015). Cited in: http://www.mfa.go.th/asean/th/other/2363 (21/12/2015).
  37. Montfort, I., & Perez-Tamayo, R. (1975). The distribution of collagenase in normal rat tissues. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, 23, 910–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Office of Agriculture Economics. (2015). Cited in: http://www.oae.go.th/ewt_news.php?nid=12897&filename=new (21/12/2015).
  39. Orejana, F. M., & Liston, J. (1981). Agent of proteolysis and its inhibition in Patis (fish sauce) fermentation. Journal of Food Science, 47, 198–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Padongkeittiwong, P. (2001). Purification and characterization of halophilic protease by halophilic bacteria isolated from fermenting fish sauce. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi.Google Scholar
  41. Park, J. N., Fukumoto, Y., Fujita, E., Tanaka, T., Washio, T., Otsuka, S., Shimizu, T., Watanabe, K., & Abe, H. (2001). Chemical composition of fish sauce produced in Southeast and East Asian countries. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 14, 113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Phetyai, P. (2011). Opinion and satisfaction of Chinese tourist toward Thai food. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  43. Phithakpol, B., Varanyanond, W., Reungmaneepaitoon, S., & Wood, H. (1995). The traditional fermented food of Thailand. Malaysia: ASEAN Food Handing Bureau (AFHB).Google Scholar
  44. Saisithi, P. (1967). Studies on the origin and development of the typical flavor and aroma of Thai fish sauce. Ph.D. thesis. Washington: University of Washington.Google Scholar
  45. Saisithi, P. (1994). Traditional fermented fish: Fish sauce production. In A. M. Martin (Ed.), Fisheries processing: Biotechnological application (pp. 111–131). London: Chapman and Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Saisithi, P., Kasmsarn, B., & Liston, J. (1966). Microbiology and chemistry of fermented fish. Journal of Food Science, 31, 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saono, S., Gandjar, I., Basuki, T., & Karsono, H. (1974). Mycoflora of ragi and some other traditional fermented foods of Indonesia. Annales Bogorienses, 5(4), 187–204.Google Scholar
  48. Shewan, J. M. (1961). The microbiology of sea-water fish. In G. Borgstrom (Ed.), Fish as food (pp. 487–560). New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suntinanalert, P. (1979). Roles of microorganisms in the fermentation of Nampla in Thailand: relationship of bacteria isolated from different geographical localities in Thailand. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Mahidol University.Google Scholar
  50. Tangjitjaroenkun, J. (2002). Quality improvement of Thua-nao by mixed cultures. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  51. Thai Industrial Standard. (1983). Local fish sauce standard. Bangkok: Ministry of Industry.Google Scholar
  52. Thai IndustrialStandard. (2013). Thai community product standard (Sato). Bangkok: Ministry of Industry.Google Scholar
  53. Thaniyavarn, J., Leepipatpiboon, N., & Yompakdee, C. (2005). Diversity of yeasts and molds from Loog Pang in Nan province. Bangkok: National Research council of Thailand.Google Scholar
  54. Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2015a). Cited in: http://thai.tourismthailand.org (21/12/2015).
  55. Tourism Authority of Thailand. (2015b). Cited in: http://th.aectourismthai.com/tourismhub/932 (21/12/2015).
  56. Twichatwitayakul, R. (1996). Effect of mixed starter cultures on reduction of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella anatum in Nham fermentation. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  57. Voskresensky, N. A. (1965). Salting of herring. In G. Borgstrom (Ed.), Fish as food (pp. 107–131). New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wannissorn, P. (1984). Effect of spices on the kinds of microorganism in Lookpang-khaomak. M.S. thesis, Bangkok: Kasetsart University.Google Scholar
  59. Wongkhalaung, C. (2004). Industrialization of Thai fish sauce (Nampla). In K. H. Steinkraus (Ed.), Industrialization of indigenous fermented foods (2nd ed.). New York: Marcell Dekker.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-IndustryKasetsart UniversityChatuchakThailand

Personalised recommendations