Ethnic Fermented Foods and Beverages of Korea

  • Dong-Hwa Shin
  • Young-Myoung Kim
  • Wan-Soo Park
  • Jae-Ho Kim


As Korea represents longer than 5000 years of history, various foods and beverages have been developed and settled as daily foods during this long period of history. Also, foods and beverages contribute to be settled down to the unique diet as traditional foods. Based on agricultural, livestock, and marine products produced in the Korean Peninsula, many types of traditional foods are introduced and transmitted from generation to generation. In addition, a specific culture of dishes that garnishes dishes with boiled rice, which is the staple food influenced by grain-based dietary habits, has settled. Vegetables and fishes have been used as major side dishes, and various fermentation techniques depending upon raw materials were applied to create new varieties of unique foods. By these fermentation skills, there were various fermented foods that appeared and led to establish the basis of unique tastes and flavors to all kinds of foods. The fermented traditional foods have very unique flavors and tastes that are not present in their original raw materials. They produce not only those flavors but also various components which have a wide range of bioactive functions, such as anticancer, anti-hypertension, anti-diabetes, and anti-obesity. In this chapter, fermented soybean products, lactic acid-fermented vegetable products, Kimchi, fermented fishes for condiments, and fermented alcoholic beverages, mainly Makgeolli that represent Korean ethnic fermented beverage, are presented with their functionalities.


Fermented Food Fish Sauce Sand Lance Side Dish Kimchi Fermentation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahn, J. E., Kim, J. K., Lee, H. R., Eom, H. J., & Han, N. S. (2012). Isolation and characterization of a bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus sakei B16 from Kimchi. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 41, 721–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Delaimy, K. S., & Ali, S. H. (1970). Antibacterial action of vegetable extracts on the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Journal Science Food Agriculture, 24, 110–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Back, L. M., Park, L. Y., Park, K. S., & Lee, S. H. (2008). Effect of starter cultures on the fermentative characteristics of Cheonggukjang. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 40, 400–405.Google Scholar
  4. Baek, J. G., Shim, S. M., Kwon, D. Y., Choi, H. K., Lee, C. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2010). Metabolite profiling of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, inoculated with various Bacillus strains during fermentation. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry, 74, 1860–1868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cha, Y. S., Yang, J. A., Back, H. I., Kim, S. R., Kim, M. G., Jung, S. J., Song, W. O., & Chae, S. W. (2012). Visceral fat and body weight are reduced in overweight adults by the supplementation of Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste. Nutrition Research Practice, 6, 520–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cha, Y. S., Kim, S. R., Yang, J. A., Back, H. I., Kim, M. G., Jung, S. J., Song, W. O., & Chae, S. W. (2013). Gochujang, fermented soybean-based red pepper paste, decreases visceral fat and improves blood lipid profiles in overweight adults. Nutrition Metabolism (London), 10, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cha, Y. S., Park, Y. S., Lee, M. S., Chae, S. W., Park, K. M., Kim, Y. S., & Lee, H. S. (2014). Doenjang, a Korean fermented soy food, exerts antiobesity and antioxidative activities in overweight subjects with the PPAR-γ2 C1431T polymorphism: 12-week, double-blind randomized clinical trial. Journal of Medicinal Food, 17, 119–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chang, J. Y., & Chang, H. C. (2011). Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens by Kimchi prepared with bacteriocin-producing starter culture. Journal of Food Science, 76, 72–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chang, J. Y., Choi, Y. R., & Chang, H. C. (2011). Change in the microbial profiles of commercial Kimchi during fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 18, 786–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheigh, H. S. (2004). Kimchi: Fermentation and food science. Seoul: Hyoil Publishing Co.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheigh, H. S., & Park, K. Y. (1994). Biochemical, microbiological and nutritional aspects of Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34, 175–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheigh, H. S., Kwon, J. Y., & Song, Y. O. (2004). Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of Kimchi lactic acid powder in rats fed high fat diets. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 36, 1014–1019.Google Scholar
  13. Cho, E. J., Lee, S. M., Rhee, S. H., & Park, K. Y. (1998a). Studies on the standardization of Chinese cabbage Kimchi. Korean Journal Food Science Technology, 30, 324–332.Google Scholar
  14. Cho, E. J., Rhee, S. H., & Park, K. Y. (1998b). Standardization of kinds of ingredient in Chinese cabbage Kimchi. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 30, 1456–1463.Google Scholar
  15. Cho, Y. J., Im, Y. S., Lee, K. W., Kim, G. B., & Choi, Y. J. (1999). Quality investigation of commercial northern sandlance, Ammodytes Personatus Sauces. Journal Korean Fish Society, 32(5), 612–617.Google Scholar
  16. Cho, T. Y., Han, G. H., Bahn, K. N., Son, Y. W., Jang, M. R., Lee, C. H., Kim, S. H., Kim, D. B., & Kim, S. B. (2006a). Evaluation of biogenic amines in Korean commercial fermented Foods. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 38, 730–737.Google Scholar
  17. Cho, J. H., Lee, D. Y., Yang, C. N., Jeon, J. I., Kim, J. H., & Han, H. U. (2006b). Microbial population dynamics of Kimchi, a fermented cabbage product. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 257, 262–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cho, Y. J., Lee, H. H., Kim, B. K., Gye, H. J., Jung, W. Y., & Shim, K. B. (2014). Quality evaluation to determine the grading of commercial salt-fermented fish sauce in Korea. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education, 26(4), 823–830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Choi, H. S. (2004). Fermentation and food science of Kimchi (pp. 382–383). Korea: Hyoil Book.Google Scholar
  20. Choi, S. H., Lee, M. H., Lee, S. K., & Oh, M. J. (1995). Microflora and enzyme activity of conventional Meju and isolation of useful mould. Journal of Agricultural Science Chungnam National University Korea., 22, 188–197.Google Scholar
  21. Choi, M. W., Kim, K. H., & Park, K. Y. (1997). Effects of Kimchi extracts on the growth of Sarcoma-180 cells and phagocytic activity of mice. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 26, 254–260.Google Scholar
  22. Choi, G. S., Lim, S. Y., & Choi, J. S. (1998a). Antioxidant and nitrile scavenging effect of soybean, Meju and Doenjang. Korean Journal Life Science, 8, 473–478.Google Scholar
  23. Choi, S. Y., Lee, M. K., Choi, K. S., Koo, Y. J., & Park, W. S. (1998b). Changes of fermentation characteristics and sensory evaluation of Kimchi on different storage temperature. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 30, 644–649.Google Scholar
  24. Chung, D. H. (2004). History of Korean traditional liquors. Seoul: Shinkwang Publication.Google Scholar
  25. Chung, C. H., Kim, Y. S., Yoo, Y. J., & Kyung, K. H. (1997). Presence and control of coliform bacteria in Kimchi. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 29, 999–1005.Google Scholar
  26. Chung, D. H., Lee, H. C., Shim, S. K., & Han, B. Y. (2006). Soybean fermented foods (Hong Ik Jae, pp. 910–918). Korea: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  27. Codex Alimentarius. (2001). Codex standard for Kimchi (CODEX STAN 223-2001). In Processed and quick frozen fruits & vegetables, 5A, FAO/WHO Joint Publications.Google Scholar
  28. Davidson, P. M., & Hoover, D. G. (1993). Antimicrobial components from lactic acid bacteria. In A. von Wright & S. Salminen (Eds.), Lactic acid bacteria (pp. 127–159). New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  29. Ha, J. H., Hawer, W. D., Kim, Y. J., & Nam, Y. J. (1989). Changes of free sugars in kimchi during fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 21, 633–638.Google Scholar
  30. Ha, J., Wang, Y., Jang, H., Seog, H., & Chen, X. (2014a). Determination of E, E-farnesol in Makgeolli (rice wine) using dynamic headspace sampling and stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 142, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ha, J. H., Shim, Y. S., Cho, Y. S., Seo, D. W., Jang, H. W., & Jang, H. J. (2014b). Analysis of E, E-farnesol and squalene in Makgeolli using stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Science & Technology, 27(1), 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ham, H. J., & Jin, Y. H. (2002). Bacterial distribution of salt-fermented fishery products in Seoul Garak wholesale market. Journal Food Hygiene Safety, 17(4), 173–177.Google Scholar
  33. Hawer, W. D., Ha, J. H., Seog, H. M., Nam, Y. J., & Shin, D. H. (1988). Changes in the taste and flavor compounds of Kimchi during fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 20, 511–517.Google Scholar
  34. Hong, S. B., Kim, D. H., & Samson, R. A. (2015). Aspergillus associated with Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea. Mycobiology, 43(3), 218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hosoi, H., & Kiuchi, K. (2008). A soybean food made by fermenting cooked soyeans with Bacillus (natto). In E. R. Farnworth (Ed.), Handbook of fermented functional food (pp. 268–269). London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  36. Hur, S. H. (1996). Critical review on the microbiological standardization of salt-fermented fish product. Journal Korean Society Food Science Nutrition, 25(5), 885–891.Google Scholar
  37. Im, J. H. (2013). The effect of Gochujang pills on blood lipids profiles in hyperlipidemia subjects: A 12 weeks, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. M.S. thesis, Chonbuk National University, Joenju, Korea.Google Scholar
  38. Jang, K. S., Kim, M. J., Oh, Y. A., Kang, M. S., & Kim, S. D. (1991). Changes in carotene content of Chinese cabbage Kimchi containing various sub-materials and lactic acid bacteria during fermentation. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 20, 5–12.Google Scholar
  39. Jang, I. H., Ahn, M. J., & Chae, H. J. (2004). Manufacturing method for traditional doenjang and screening of high fibrin clotting inhibitory samples. Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry, 47, 149–153.Google Scholar
  40. Jang, S., Kim, K., & Kang, S. (2008). Effects of PGA-LM on CD4 + CD25 + foxp3+ Treg cell activation in isolated CD4+ T cells in NC/Nga mice. Korean Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, 36, 160–169.Google Scholar
  41. Jeon, J. H., Kim, H. D., Lee, H. S., & Ryu, B. H. (2004). Isolation and identification of Lactobacillus sp. produced r-aminobutyric acid(GABA) from traditional fermented anchovy. Korean Journal Food & Nutrition, 17(1), 72–79.Google Scholar
  42. Jeong, S. Y., Park, C. S., Choi, N. S., Yang, H. J., Kim, C. Y., Yoon, B. D., Kang, D. O., Ryu, Y. W., & Ryu, M. S. (2011). Characteristics of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ET45 isolated from Kimchi. The Korean Journal of Microbiology, 47, 74–80.Google Scholar
  43. Jin, J. B., Kim, S. Y., Jin, Q., Eom, H. J., & Han, N. S. (2008). Diversity analysis of lactic acid bacteria in Takju, Korean rice wine. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 18, 1678–1682.Google Scholar
  44. Jo, J. S. (2000). Researches of Kimchi (1st ed.). Seoul: Yulim-Munhwa-Sa.Google Scholar
  45. Joo, K. E., & Oh, N. S. (2009). Effect of the mixed culture of Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum on the quality of Cheonggukjang. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 41, 399–404.Google Scholar
  46. Jung, K. O., Park, S. Y., & Park, K. Y. (2006). Longer aging time increases the anticancer and antimetastatic properties of Doenjang. Nutrition, 22, 539–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kang, C. H., Chung, K. O., & Ha, D. M. (2002). Inhibitory effect on the growth of intestinal pathogenic bacteria by Kimchi fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 34, 480–486.Google Scholar
  48. KFA. (2013). Korean fisheries year book. Korea Fisheries Association. Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  49. Kim, J. H. (1995). Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by bacteriocin(s) from lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi. Journal of the Korean society of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology, 38, 302–307.Google Scholar
  50. Kim, M. J. (2009). Effect of Cheonggukjang powder on the large bowel function in rats with loperamide induced constipation. M.S. thesis, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea).Google Scholar
  51. Kim, M., & Chun, J. (2005). Bacterial community structure in Kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 103, 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kim, K. Y., & Hahm, Y. T. (2002). Recent studies about physiological functions of Cheonggukjang and functional enhancement with genetic engineering. The Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetic, 16, 1–18.Google Scholar
  53. Kim, Y. M., & Kim, D. S. (1991). Fermented Jeotgal in Korea- raw materials and products (2nd ed.). Korea Food Research Institute. Seongnam city, KoreaGoogle Scholar
  54. Kim, S. D., Hawer, W. D., & Jang, M. S. (1998). Effect of fermentation temperature on free sugar, organic acid and volatile compounds of kakdugi. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 27, 16–23.Google Scholar
  55. Kim, H. L., Lee, T. S., Noh, B. S., & Park, J. S. (1999). Characteristics of the stored Samjangs with different Doenjangs. Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 31, 36–44.Google Scholar
  56. Kim, K. P., Rhee, C. H., & Park, H. D. (2001). Isolation and characterization of cholesterol degradation bacteria from Korea traditional salt fermented flat fish. Korean Journal Postharvest Science Technology, 8(1), 92–101.Google Scholar
  57. Kim, H. W., Lee, N. K., Choi, S. Y., & Paik, H. D. (2003a). Some probiotic properties of some lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from Jeot-gal, Current biotechnology and bioengineering (XII). KSBB. Proceeding, 697–700.Google Scholar
  58. Kim, Y. S., Jung, H. J., Park, Y. S., & Yu, T. S. (2003b). Characteristics of flavor and functionality of Bacillus subtilis K-20 Chunggukjang. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 35(3), 475–478.Google Scholar
  59. Kim, K. P., Rhee, I. K., & Park, H. D. (2003c). Degradation of cholesterol by Bacillus subtilis SFF34 in flatfish during fermentation. Journal of Microbiology, 41(4), 284–288.Google Scholar
  60. Kim, J. H., Lee, D. H., Lee, S. H., Choi, S. Y., & Lee, J. S. (2004). Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the quality and functionality of Korean traditional rice wine, yakju. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 97(1), 24–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim, S. J., Ma, S. J., & Kim, H. L. (2005). Probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from Korean traditional food, Jeot-gal. Korean Journal Food Preservation, 12(2), 184–189.Google Scholar
  62. Kim, J. Y., Kim, O. Y., Yoo, H. J., Kim, T. I., Kim, W. H., Yoon, Y. D., & Lee, J. H. (2006). Effects of fiber supplements on functional constipation. Korean Journal Nutrition, 39, 35–43.Google Scholar
  63. Kim S. H., Yang, J. Y., Lee, K. H., Oh, K. H., Kim, G. M., Kim, J. M., Paik, D. J., Hong, S. M., & Youn, J. H. (2009a). Bacillus subtilis-specific poly-g-glutamic acid regulates development pathways of naive CD41 T cells through antigen-presenting cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms. International Immunology, 21, 977–990.Google Scholar
  64. Kim, M. S., Park, E. J., Jung, M. J., Rho, S. W., & Bae, J. W. (2009b). Analysis of prokaryote communities in Korean traditional fermented food, Jeot-gal, using culture-dependent method and isolation of novel strain. Korean J Microbiology, 45(1), 26–31.Google Scholar
  65. Kim, Y., Park, Y. J., Yang, S. O., Kim, S. H., Cho, S., Kim, Y. S., Kwon, D. Y., Cha, Y. S., Chae, S. W., & Choi, H. K. (2010). Hypoxanthine levels in human urine serve as a screening indicator for the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein modulation activities of fermented red pepper paste. Nutrition Research, 30, 455–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kim, D. H., Kim, S. H., Kwon, S. W., Lee, J., & Hong, S. B. (2013). Fungal diversity of rice straw for Meju fermentation. Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, 23, 1654–1663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kim, K., Hwang, K., Park, C., Jo, J., Asakura, T., Zhao, R., Liu, X., Kang, J., Yoon, D., Kim, I., & Han, K. (2014a). Humanistic understanding of Kimchi and Kimjang culture (World Institute of Kimchi, Kimchiology series no. 1). Seoul (Korea): Cana CNP Co.Google Scholar
  68. Kim, J. H., Jia, Y., Lee, J. G., Nam, B., Lee, J. H., Shin, K. S., Hurh, B. S., Choi, Y. H., & Lee, S. J. (2014b). Hypolipidemic and antiinflammation activities of fermented soybean fibers from Meju in C57BL/6 J mice. Phytotherapy Research. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5134.
  69. KITA. (2014). Korea International Trade Association.
  70. Kwak, C. S., Kim, M. Y., Kim, S. A., & Lee, M. S. (2002). Cytotoxicity on human cancer cells and antitumorigenesis of Chungkookjang, a fermented soybean product, in DMBA-treated rats. The Korean Journal of Nutrition, 39, 346–356.Google Scholar
  71. Kwak, C. S., Park, S. C., & Song, K. Y. (2012). Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than non-fermented soybeans. Journal of Medicinal Food, 15, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kwon, D. Y., Jang, J. S., Lee, J. E., Kim, Y. S., Shin, D. W., & Park, S. (2006). The Isoflavonoid aglycone-rich fractions of Cheonggukjang, fermented unsalted soybeans, enhance insulin signaling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-activity in vitro. Biofactors, 26, 245–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kwon, D. Y., Hong, S. M., Ahan, I. S., Kim, Y. S., Shin, D. W., & Park, S. M. (2009). Gochujang, a Korean fermented red pepper plus soybean paste, improves glucose homeostasis in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats. Nutrition, 25, 790–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kwon, D. Y., Daily III, J. W., Kim, H. J., & Park, S. M. (2010). Antidiabetic effects of fermented soybean products on type 2 diabetes. Nutrition Research, 30, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kwon, D. Y., Chung, K. R., Yang, H. J., & Jang, D. J. (2011). The story of Gochujang (red pepper paste) (pp. 121–190). Seoul: Hyoilbooks. ISBN 978-89-8489-303-0.Google Scholar
  76. Kwon, S. J., Ahn, T. Y., & Shon, J. H. (2012). Analysis of microbial diversity in Makgeolli fermentation using PCR-DGGE. J Life Sci, 22, 232–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lae, P. (2005). The effect of fermented soybean powder on improvement of constipating patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.M.S. thesis, Kyungpook National University Daegu (Korea).Google Scholar
  78. Lee, S. W. (1984). History of Korean dietary culture. Seoul: Kyomoon Co.Google Scholar
  79. Lee, S. W. (1993a). Culture aspects of Korean fermented products in East Asia. In C. H. Lee, K. H. Steinkraus, & P. J. Alan Reilly (Eds.), Fish fermentation technology, Book (pp. 1–12). Seoul: Yulim-Munhwa Co.Google Scholar
  80. Lee, C. H. (1993b). Fish fermentation technology in Korea- in fish fermentation technology. In C. H. Lee, K. H. Steinkraus, & P. J. A. Reilly (Eds.), Book (pp. 187–202). Tokyo: United nations University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Lee, S. W. (1993c). Proceeding, Present situation and prospects of Korean traditional fermented foods. Korean Society of Industrial Microbiology, 1–10.Google Scholar
  82. Lee, H. G. (1996). History of traditional Korean alcohol drinks. Koreana, 10(4), 4–9.Google Scholar
  83. Lee, I. J. (2002). Effects of dietary supplementation of Korean soybean paste(Doenjang) on the lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat and/or a high cholesterol diet. Journal Korean Public Health Association, 28, 282–305.Google Scholar
  84. Lee, H. G. (2007). Korean traditional liquors of Korea. Seoul: Hanyang Univsity Press.Google Scholar
  85. Lee, H. J., & Hwang, E. H. (1997). Effects of alginic acid. Cellulose and pectin level on bowel function in rats. Korean Journal Nutrition, 30, 465–477.Google Scholar
  86. Lee, H. J., & Kim, W. J. (2010). Isolation and characterization of anti-listerial and amylase sensitive enterocin producing Enterococcus faecium DB1 from Gajami-sikhae, a fermented flat fish in Korea. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(2), 373–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lee, S. J., & Shin, W. C. (2011). Physiological functionalities of Makgeolli (Korean Paradox). Food Science and Industry, 44, 1–11.Google Scholar
  88. Lee, K. H., Chang, C. H., Mheen, T. I., Lee, S. R., Kwon, T. W., & Park, K. I. (1983). Korean Jeot-kal. In K. H. Steinkraus (Ed.), Handbook of indigenous fermented foods (pp. 500–505). New York: Book, Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  89. Lee, C. H., Lee, E. H., Lim, M. H., Kim, S. H., Chae, S. K., Lee, K. W., & Koh, K. H. (1986). Characteristics of Korean fish fermentation technology. Korean Journal of Dietary Culture, 1(3), 267–278.Google Scholar
  90. Lee, K. E., Choi, U. H., & Ji, G. E. (1996). Effect of kimchi intake on the composition of human large intestinal bacteria. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 28, 981–986.Google Scholar
  91. Lee, S. S., Kim, S. M., Park, U. Y., Kim, H. Y., & Shin, I. S. (2002). Studies on proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of Bacillus subtilis JM-3 isolated from anchovy sauce. Korean Journal Food Science Technology, 34(2), 283–289.Google Scholar
  92. Lee, N. K., Kim, H. W., Choi, S. Y., & Paik, H. D. (2003). Some probiotic properties of some lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from Jeot-gal. Korean Journal Microbiology Biotechnology, 31(3), 297–300.Google Scholar
  93. Lee, I. H., Lee, S. H., Lee, I. S., Park, Y. K., Chung, D. K., & Choue, R. (2008). Effects of probiotic extracts of Kimchi on immune function in NC/Nga mice. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40, 82–87.Google Scholar
  94. Lee, J., Yun, H. S., Cho, K. W., Oh, S., Kim, S. H., Chun, T., Kim, B., & Whang, K. Y. (2011a). Evaluation of probiotic characteristics of newly isolated Lactobacillus spp.: Immune modulation and longevity. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 148, 80–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lee, S. H., Yoo, M. Y., & Shin, D. B. (2011b). Determination of biogenic amines in Cheonggukjang using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Food Science and Biotechnology, 20, 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lee, S. J., Kim, J. H., Jung, Y. W., Park, S. Y., Shin, W. C., Park, C. S., Hong, S. Y., & Kim, G. W. (2011c). Composition of organic acids and physiological functionality of commercial Makgeolli. Korean Journal Food Science Technology, 43, 206–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Lee, N. R., Lee, S. M., Cho, K. S., Jeong, S. Y., Hwang, D. Y., Kim, D. S., Hong, C. O., & Son, H. J. (2014). Improved production of Poly-γ-glutamic acid by Bacillus subtilis D7 isolated from Doenjang, a Korean traditional fermented food and its antioxidant activity. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 173, 918–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lim, J., Hwang, K., Park, C., Kim, I., Kang, J., Yoon, D., Montanari, M., Naomichi, I., Cwiertka, K. J., Sohn, Y., & Hahm, H. (2014). The humanistic understanding of Kimchi (World Institute of Kimchi, Kimchiology series no. 2). Gwangju (Korea): Simmian.Google Scholar
  99. Liu, X., Lee, J. Y., Jeong, S. J., Cho, K. M., Kim, G. M., Shin, J. H., Kim, J. S., & Kim, J. H. (2015). Properties of a Bacteriocin produced by Bacillus subtilis EMD4 isolated from Ganjang (Soy Sauce). Journal Microbiology Biotechnology Microbiology Biotechnology, 25(9), 1493–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mheen, T. I., & Kwon, T. W. (1984). Effect of temperature and salt concentration on Kimchi fermentation. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 16, 443–450.Google Scholar
  101. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. (2013). Production of food and food additives. p. 85.Google Scholar
  102. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Statistical annual report of Food and Food additive. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. (2012). p 89. Korea.
  103. Nam, Y. D., Park, S. L., & Lim, S. I. (2012). Microbial composition of the Korean traditional food “Gochujang” analyzed by a massive sequencing technique. Journal of Food Science, 77, 250–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. NFRDI. (2009). Chemical composition of marine products (2nd ed.). National Fisheries Research and Development Institute.Google Scholar
  105. Park, W. S. (1994). Kimchi Industry in Korea: Present and future. In: The proceeding of international workshop on application and control of microorganisms in Asia. Science and Technology Agency. In: The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) and Japan international Science and Technology Exchange Center. Tokyo, pp 61–69.Google Scholar
  106. Park, K. Y. (1995). The nutritional evaluation, and antimutagenic and anticancer effects of Kimchi. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 24, 169–182.Google Scholar
  107. Park, C. L. (2007). Literature review on the methods Kimchi made in the first half of the twentieth century. Seoul: Sookmyung University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Park, K. Y. (2009). Science and functionality of fermented soybean products, Korea Jang Cooperation (pp. 105–130). Korea: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  109. Park, C. L. (2013). Roots of Joseon dynasty Kimchi: A deep, wide study of culture, cuisine and folklore. Seoul: Minsokwon.Google Scholar
  110. Park, W. S., Moon, S. W., Lee, M. K., Ahn, B. H., Koo, Y. J., & Kim, K. H. (1996). Comparison of fermentation characteristics of the main types of Chinese cabbage Kimchi. Foods and Biotechnology, 5, 128–135.Google Scholar
  111. Park, S., Lee, H., & Kang, K. (1998a). A study on the effect of oligosaccharides on growth of intestinal bacteria. Korean Journal Dairy Science, 10.Google Scholar
  112. Park, K. Y., Kim, S. H., & Son, T. J. (1998b). Antimutagenic activities of cell wall and cytosol fractions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi. Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 3, 329–333.Google Scholar
  113. Park, K., Kong, K., Jung, K., & Rhee, S. (2001). Inhibitory effect of Gochujang extracts on the tumor formation and lung metastasis in mice. Journal of Food Science Nutrition, 6, 181–191.Google Scholar
  114. Park, J. M., Shin, J. H., Lee, D. W., Song, J. C., Suh, H. J., Chang, U. J., & Kim, J. M. (2010). Identification of the lactic acid bacteria on Kimchi according to initial and over-ripened fermentation using PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19, 541–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Park, K. Y., Jeong, J. K., Lee, Y. E., & Daily, J. W. (2014a). Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. Journal of Medicinal Food, 17, 6–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Park, S. H., Kang, I. G., Jeong, S. H., & Kim, C. G. (2014b). Kimchi industrial trend 2013. World Institute of Kimchi (pp. 26–75). Gwangju(Korea): Jinu Community Co.Google Scholar
  117. RDA. (2011). Standard food composition table (8th ed.). The Korean Nutrition Society: Seoul.Google Scholar
  118. Ryu, D., Choi, B., Kim, E., Park, S., Paeng, H., Kim, C. I., Lee, J. Y., Yoon, H. J., & Koh, E. (2015). Determination of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods sold in Korea. Toxicology Research, 31(3), 289–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Seo, B. J., Rather, I. A., & Kumar, V. J. R. (2012). Evaluation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides YML003 as a probiotic against low‐pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2) virus in chickens. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113, 163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Seo, H. Y., Kim, Y. W., Han, W. S., Lee, M. A., Cho, J. E., Chung, Y. B., Kim, S. H., Yoo, S. R., Lee, Y., Yang, J. H., Kim, S. J., Chung, H. M., Chun, S. H., Lee, J. H., Song, J. H., Han, A. R., Yang, J. S., & Choi, E. J. (2013). Development of basic technologies for strengthening global competitiveness of Kimchi. World Institute of Kimchi, Project report No. KE1301-2-130037, Korea.Google Scholar
  121. Shin, D. H. (2011). Utilization of Soybean as food stuffs in Korea. In: Soybean and nutrition. Ed. H.A.El-Shemy (pp. 81–110). Intech Inpress.Google Scholar
  122. Shin, J. W., Kim, D. G., Lee, Y. W., Lee, H. S., Shin, K. S., Choi, C. S., & Kwon, G. S. (2007). Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus brevis AML 15 producing r-Aminobutyric acid. Journal of Life Science, 17(7), 970–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shin, M. O., Kang, D. Y., Kim, M. H., & Bae, S. J. (2008). Effect of growth inhibition and quinone reductase activity stimulation of Makgeolli fractions in various cancer cells. Journal Korean Society Food Science Nutrition, 37, 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shin, M. O., Kim, M. H., & Bae, S. J. (2010). The effect of Makgeolli on blood flow, serum lipid improvement and inhibition of ACE in vitro. Journal Life Science, 20, 710–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shin, S. K., Kwon, J. H., Jeon, M., Choi, J., & Choi, M. S. (2011). Supplementation of Cheonggukjang and Red Ginseng Cheonggukjang can improve plasma lipid profile and fasting blood glucose concentration in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14, 108–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Shin, D. H., Kwon, D. Y., Kim, Y. S., & Jeong, D. Y. (2012). Science and technology of Korean Gochujang. Public Health Education, 10–133.Google Scholar
  127. Son, M. (1995). Anticancer effect of Doenjang and its mechanisms in mice. M.S. thesis, Pusan National University. Busan, Korea.Google Scholar
  128. Song, H., Kim, Y., & Lee, K. (2008). Antioxidant and anticancer activities of traditional Gochujang added with garlic porridge. Journal of Life Science, 18, 1140–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Song, Y. R., Jeong, D. Y., & Baik, S. H. (2015). Effects of indigenous yeasts on physicochemical and microbial properties of Korean soy sauce prepared by low-salt fermentation. Food Microbiology, 51, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Steinkraus, K. H. (1993). Comparison of fermented Foods of the east and west. In C. H. Lee, K. H. Steinkraus, & P. J. Alan Reilly (Eds.), Fish fermentation technology (pp. 1–12). Seoul: Yulim-Munhwa-Sa.Google Scholar
  131. Sung, M. H., Park, C., Kim, C. J., Poo, H., Soda, K., & Shiuchi, M. A. (2005). Natural and edible biopolymer poly-gamma-glutamic acid: Synthesis, production, and applications. Chemical Record, 5, 352–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tamang, J. P. (2015). Naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 2, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yeom, D. M., Lee, T. G., Do, J. R., Kim, O. K., Park, Y. B., Kim, S. B., & Park, Y. H. (1993). Characteristics of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitors of fish sauce prepared from sardine, Sardinops melanosticta. Bull. K. Google Scholar
  134. Yoo, J. G., Kim, D. H., Park, E. H., Lee, J. S., Kim, S. Y., & Kim, M. D. (2011). Nuruk, a traditional Korean fermentation starter, contains the bioactive compound 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,6-DMBQ). Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 54(5), 795–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong-Hwa Shin
    • 1
  • Young-Myoung Kim
    • 2
  • Wan-Soo Park
    • 3
  • Jae-Ho Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.Shindonghwa Food Research InstituteSeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Gijang Mulsan CO.LTDSuwon-siRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.World Institute of KimchiGwangju Metropolitan CityRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Korea Food Research InstituteSeongnam-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations