Improvement of Crop Protection and Yield in Hostile Agroecological Conditions with PGPR-Based Biofertilizer Formulations

  • Dilfuza Egamberdieva
  • Anthony O. Adesemoye


Intensive research attempts are underway to mitigate the impacts of climate change, improve salt tolerance and disease resistance of plants using organic farming practices, including biofertilizer which eventually improve degraded soils. In addition, it will form part of integrated environmentally friendly approach for nutrient management and sustainability in ecosystem functions. The use of such microbial inoculants as biofertilizers or biopesticides portends a great promise for controlling disease, improving plant health and soil productivity under environmentally stressed conditions. Stress-tolerant microorganisms with plant-stimulating properties are being discovered, selected and tested under field conditions and the number of successful applications is increasing. Formulation of microorganisms with various carrier materials enables long-term storage and protects them from various stress factors. This review summarizes the current status of microbial inoculants usage and prospects in crop cultivation and crop stress management, with particular attention to arid stress agro-ecological conditions.


Salt Stress Mung Bean Bacterial Inoculant Carrier Material Improve Plant Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research activity of Dilfuza Egamberdieva was supported by a Georg Forster Research Fellowship for experienced Researchers (HERMES), Alexander Von Humboldt Foundation.


  1. Adesemoye AO, Egamberdieva D (2013) Beneficial effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on improved crop production: the prospects for developing economies. In: Maheshwari DK, Saraf M, Aeron A (eds) Bacteria in agrobiology: crop productivity. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 45–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adesemoye AO, Kloepper JW (2009) Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer use efficiency. Appl Microbiol Biotech 85:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2008) Enhanced plant nutrient use efficiency with PGPR and AMF in an integrated nutrient management system. Can J Microbiol 54:876–886CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Adesemoye AO, Torbert HA, Kloepper JW (2009) Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria allow reduced application rates of chemical fertilizers. Microb Ecol 58:921–929CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adesemoye AO, Wei H–H, Yuen G. Prospecting for cold–hardy autochthonous novel bacteria in crop root microbiome (personal communication)Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad P, Hakeem KR, Kumar A, Ashraf M, Akram NA (2012) Salt induced changes in photosynthetic activity and oxidative defense system of three cultivars of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Afr J Biotech 11:2694–2703Google Scholar
  7. Ahmad M, Zahir ZA, Nadeem SM, Nazli F, Jamil M, Khalid M (2013) Field evaluation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains to improve growth, nodulation and yield of mung bean under salt–affected conditions. Soil Environ 32:158–166Google Scholar
  8. Albareda M, Rodríguez–Navarro DN, Camacho M, Temprano FJ (2008) Alternatives to peat as a carrier for rhizobia inoculants: solid and liquid formulations. Soil Biol Bioch 40:2771–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Araujo FF, Souza EC, Guerreiro RT, Guaberto LM, Araujo ASF (2012) Diversity and growth–promoting activities of Bacillus sp. in maize. Revista Caatinga Mossoro 25:1–7Google Scholar
  10. Ardakani SS, Hedari A, Tayebi L, Mohammadi M (2010) Promotion of cotton seedlings growth characteristics by development and use of new bioformulations. Int J Bot 6:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arora NK, Tiwari S, Singh R (2014) Comparative study of different carriers inoculated with nodule forming and free living plant growth promoting bacteria suitable for sustainable agriculture. J Plant Path Microb 5:229Google Scholar
  12. Arshad M, Shaharoona B, Mahmood T (2008) Inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. containing ACC–deaminase partially eliminates the effects of drought stress on growth, yield, and ripening of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pedosphere 18:611–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arvin P, Vafabakhsh J, Mazaheri D, Noormohamadi G, Azizi M (2012) Study of drought stress and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield, yield components and seed oil content of different cultivars and species of Brassica oilseed rape. Ann Biol Res 3:4444–4451Google Scholar
  14. Ashwini N, Srividya S (2014) Potentiality of Bacillus subtilis as biocontrol agent for management of anthracnose disease of chilli caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides OGC1. 3 Biotech 4:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bano A, Yasmeen S (2010) Role of phytohormones under induced drought stress in wheat. Pak J Bot 42(4):2579–2587Google Scholar
  16. Bashan I (1998) Inoculants of plant growth–promoting bacteria for use in agriculture. Biotechnol Adv 16:729–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ben Rebah F, Prevost D, Tyagi RD (2002) Growth of alfalfa in sludge–amended soils and inoculated with rhizobia produced in sludge. J Environ Qual 31:1339–1348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Berg G, Alavi M, Schmidt CS, Zachow C, Egamberdieva D, Kamilova F, Lugtenberg B (2013) Biocontrol and osmoprotection for plants under saline conditions. In: de Bruijn FJ (ed) Molecular microbial ecology of the rhizosphere. Wiley –Blackwell, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  19. Bharathi R, Vivekananthan R, Harish S, Ramanathan S, Samiyappan R (2004) Rhizobacteria–based bio–formulations for the management of fruit rot infection in chillies. Crop Prot 23:835–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Daza A, Santamaria C, Rodriguez Navarro DN, Camacho M, Orive R, Temprano F (2000) Perlite as a carrier for bacterial inoculants. Soil Biol Bioch 32:567–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dhale DA, Chatte SN, Jadhav VT (2011) Response of bioinoculants on growth, yield and fiber quality of cotton under irrigation. Agric Biol J North America. Science Huß,
  22. Egamberdieva D (2012) Pseudomonas chlororaphis: a salt tolerant bacterial inoculant for plant growth stimulation under saline soil conditions. Acta Physiol Plant 34:751–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Egamberdieva D, Lugtenberg B (2014) PGPR to alleviate salinity stress on plant growth. In: Miransari M (ed) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses, vol 1. Springer, New York, pp 73–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Egamberdieva D, Berg G, Lindstrom K, Rasanen L (2010) Root colonising Pseudomonas sp. improve growth and symbiosis performance of fodder galega (Galega orientalis LAM) grown in potting soil. Eur J Soil Biol 46:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Egamberdieva D, Kucharova Z, Davranov K, Berg G, Makarova N, Azarova T, Chebotar V, Tikhonovich I, Kamilova F, Validov S, Lugtenberg B (2011) Bacteria able to control foot and root rot and to promote growth of cucumber in salinated soils. Biol Fertil Soils 47:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Egamberdieva D, Berg G, Lindström K, Räsänen LA (2013) Alleviation of salt stress of symbiotic Galega officinalis L. (goat's rue) by co–inoculation of rhizobium with root colonising Pseudomonas. Plant and Soil 369:453–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Egamberdieva D, Shurigin V, Gopalakrishnan S, Sharma R (2014) Growth and symbiotic performance of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars under saline soil conditions. J Biol Chem Res 31:333–341Google Scholar
  28. Egamberdiyeva D (2005) Characterisation of Pseudomonas species isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown in serozem soil, semi arid region of Uzbekistan. Sci World J 5:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Egamberdiyeva D (2007) The growth and nutrient uptake of maize inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria affected by different soil types. Appl Soil Ecol 36:184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Egamberdiyeva D, Hoflich G (2002) Root colonization and growth promotion of winter wheat and pea by Cellulomonas spp. at different temperatures. J Plant Growth Reg 38:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Egamberdiyeva D, Hoflich G (2003) Influence of growth promoting bacteria on the growth of wheat at different soils and temperatures. Soil Biol Biochem 35:973–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Egamberdiyeva D, Hoflich G (2004) Importance of plant growth promoting bacteria on growth and nutrient uptake of cotton and pea in semi–arid region Uzbekistan. J Arid Envir 56:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Egamberdiyeva D, Qarshieva D, Davranov K (2004) The use of Bradyrhizobium japonicum to enhance growth and yield of soybean varieties in Uzbekistan conditions. Plant Growth Reg 23:54–57Google Scholar
  34. Elkoca E, Turan M, Donmez MF (2010) Effects of single, dual and triple inoculations with Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli on nodulation, nutrient uptake, yield and yield parameters of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Plant Nutr 33:2104–2119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fravel DR (2005) Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Ann Rev Phytopath 43:337–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fu Q, Liu C, Ding N, Lin Y, Guo B (2010) Ameliorative effects of inoculation with the plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas sp. DW1 on growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) seedlings under salt stress. Agric Water Manage 97:1994–2000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garg N, Baher N (2013) Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in proline biosynthesis and metabolism of Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes under salt stress. J Plant Growth Regul 32:767–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Glick BR (2010) Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation. Biotechnol Adv 28:367–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Golpayegani A, Tilebeni HG (2011) Effect of biological fertilizers on biochemical and physiological parameters of Basil (Ociumum basilicm L.) medicine plant. Amer–Euras J Agric Environ Sci 11:411–416Google Scholar
  40. Goswami D, Vaghela H, Parmar S, Dhandhukia P, Thakker JN (2013) Plant growth promoting potentials of Pseudomonas spp. strain OG isolated from marine water. J Plant Interact 8:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hale L, Luth M, Crowley D (2015) Biochar characteristics relate to its utility as an alternative soil inoculum carrier to peat and vermiculite. Soil Biol Bioch 81:228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hameed A, Egamberdieva D, Abd–Allah EF, Hashem A, Kumar A, Ahmad P (2014) Salinity stress and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in plants. In: Miransari M (ed) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses, vol 1. Springer, New York, pp 139–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, El–Didamony G, Alwhibi Mona S, Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P (2014) Alleviation of adverse impact of salinity on faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Pak J Bot 46:2003–2013Google Scholar
  44. Hashem A, Abd_Allah EF, Alqarawi AA, Alwhibi Mona S, Alenazi MM, Egamberdieva D, Ahmad P (2015) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mitigates NaCl induced adverse effects on Solanum lycopersicum L. Pak J Bot 47:327–340Google Scholar
  45. Islam MZ, Sattar MA, Ashrafuzzaman M, Berahim Z, Shamsuddoha ATM (2013) Evaluating some salinity tolerant rhizobacterial strains to lentil production under salinity stress. Int J Agric Biol 15:499–504Google Scholar
  46. Karlidag H, Yildirim E, Turan M, Pehluvan T, Donmez F (2013) Plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria mitigate deleterious effects of salt stress on strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa). Hort Sci 48:563–567Google Scholar
  47. Khavazi K, Rejali F, Seguin P, Miransari M (2007) Effects of carrier, sterilization method, and incubation on survival of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in soybean (Glycine max L.) inoculants. Enzyme Microb Tech 41:780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Khurana AS, Sharma P (2000) Effect of dual inoculation of phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Bradyrhizobium sp. and phosphorus on nitrogen fixation and yield of chickpea. Indian J Pulses Res 13:66–67Google Scholar
  49. Korus K, Adesemoye AO, Giesler L, Harveson RM, Jackson–Ziems TA, Wegulo SN (2015) Weather variability and disease management strategies. In: Proceedings of the 2015 crop production clinics, University of Nebraska Lincoln Extension Publication, pp 144–146Google Scholar
  50. Kumar B, Trivedi P, Pandey A (2007) Pseudomonas corrugata: a suitable bioinoculant for maize grown under rainfed conditions of Himalayan region. Soil Biol Biochem 39:3093–3100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lugtenberg B, Kamilova F (2009) Plant–growth–promoting–rhizobacteria. Ann Rev Microbiol 63:541–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Malusá E, Sas–Paszt L, Ciesielska J (2012) Technologies for beneficial microorganisms inocula used as biofertilizers. Sci World J. doi: 10.1100/2012/491206
  53. Mantri N, Patade V, Penna S, Ford R, Pang E (2012) Abiotic stress responses in plants: present and future. In: Ahmad P, Prasad MNV (eds) Abiotic stress responses in plants: metabolism, productivity and sustainability. Springer, New York, pp 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Marin M (2006) Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation in nursery practice. In: Rai MK (ed) Handbook of microbial biofertilisers. International Book Distributing Co, Lucknow, pp 289–324Google Scholar
  55. Marques APGC, Piresa C, Moreira H, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2010) Assessment of the plant growth promotion abilities of six bacterial isolates using Zea mays as indicator plant. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1229–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mishra PK, Bisht SC, Ruwari P, Selvakumar G, Joshi GK, Bisht JK, Bhatt JC, Gupta HS (2011) Alleviation of cold stress in inoculated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings with psychrotolerant Pseudomonads from NW Himalayas. Arch Microbiol 193:497–513CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. N’cho CO, Yusuf AA, Ama–Abina JT, Jemo A, Abaidoo RC, Savane I (2013) Effects of commercial microbial inoculants and foliar fertilizers on soybean nodulation and yield in northern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. Inter J Adv Agric Res 1:66–73Google Scholar
  59. Nabti E, Sahnoune M, Ghoul M, Fischer D, Hofmann A, Rothballer M, Schmid M, Hartmann A (2010) Restoration of growth of durum wheat (Triticum durum var. waha) under saline conditions due to inoculation with the rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum brasilense NH and extracts of the marine alga Ulva lactuca. J Plant Growth Regul 29:6–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nadeem SM, Zahir ZA, Naveed M (2010) Microbial ACC deaminase: prospects and applications for inducing salt tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 29(6):360–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Negi YK, Kumar J, Garg SK (2005) Cold–tolerant fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates from Garhwal Himalayas as potential plant growth promoting and biocontrol agents in pea. Curr Sci 89:2151–2156Google Scholar
  62. Othman Y, Al–Karaki G, Al–Tawaha AR, Al– Horani A (2006) Vaviation in germination and jon uptake in barley genotypes under salinity conditions. World J Agric Sci 2(1):11–15Google Scholar
  63. Pandey A, Sharma E, Palni L (1998) Influence of bacterial inoculation on maize in upland farming systems of the sikkim Himalaya. Soil Biol Bioch 3:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Patel DP, Singh HB, Shroff S, Sahu J (2012) Studies on growth promotion activities of Trichoderma harzianum on chickpea. Adv Plant Sci 25:193–195Google Scholar
  65. Pathma J, Sakthivel N (2012) Microbial diversity of vermicompost bacteria that exhibit useful agricultural traits and waste management potential. Springer Plus 1:26CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Poberejskaya S, Egamberdiyeva D, Myachina O, Teryuhova P, Seydalieva L, Aliev A, Kim P (2003) Improvement of the productivity of cotton by phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculants. In: Proceedings of the 6th international symposium and exhibition on environmental contamination in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 1–6 September, Prague, Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
  67. Rajput L, Imran A, Mubeen F, Hafeez FY (2013) Salt–tolerant PGPR strain Planococcus rifietoensis promotes the growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivated in saline soil. Pak J Bot 45:1955–1962Google Scholar
  68. Rekha PD, Lai WA, Arun AB, Young CC (2007) Effect of free and encapsulated Pseudomonas putida CC–FR2–4 and Bacillus subtilis CC–pg104 on plant growth under gnotobiotic condition. Bio Res Tech 98:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rinu K, Pandey A (2009) Bacillus subtilis NRRL B–30408 inoculation enhances the symbiotic efficiency of Lens esculenta Moench at a Himalayan location. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 172:134–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Roopa B, Maya C, Makari HK (2012) Effect of different PGPR strain along with rhizobium on nodulation and chick pea productivity. Asian J Exp Biol Sci 3:424–426Google Scholar
  71. Sahni S, Sarma BK, Singh DP, Singh HP, Singh KP (2008) Vermicompost enhances performance of plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria in Cicer arietinum rhizosphere against Sclerotium rolfsii. Crop Prot 27:369–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sangeetha D (2012) Survival of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants in different carrier materials. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 3:170–178Google Scholar
  73. Schoebitz M, Mengual C, Roldán A (2014) Combined effects of clay immobilized Azospirillum brasilense and Pantoea dispersa and organic olive residue on plant performance and soil properties in the re–vegetation of a semiarid area. Sci Total Environ 466–467:67–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Shah P, Kakar KM, Zada K (2001) Phosphorus use efficiency of soybean as affected by phosphorus application and inoculation. In: Horst WJ (eds) Plant nutrition– food security and sustainability of agroecosystems. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 670–671Google Scholar
  75. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2006) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC–deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under axenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L). Lett Appl Microbiol 42:155–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sharma P, Khanna V, Kumari P (2013) Efficacy of aminocyclopropane–1–carboxylic acid (ACC)–deaminase–producing rhizobacteria in ameliorating water stress in chickpea under axenic conditions. Afr J Microbiol Res 7:5749–5757Google Scholar
  77. Shirmardi M, Savaghebi GR, Khavazi K, Akbarzadeh A, Farahbakhsh M, Rejali F, Sadat A (2010) Effect of microbial inoculants on uptake of nutrient elements in two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in saline soils. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 2:57–66Google Scholar
  78. Shrivastava S, Egamberdieva D, Varma A (2015) PGPRs and medicinal plants– the state of arts. In: Egamberdieva D, Shrivastava S, Varma A (eds) PGPR and medicinal plants. Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Soil Biology 42Google Scholar
  79. Singh A, Sarma BK, Upadhyay RS, Singh HB (2013) Compatible rhizosphere microbes mediated alleviation of biotic stress in chickpea through enhanced antioxidant and phenylpropanoid activities. Microbiol Res 168:33–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Son TTN, Diep CN, Giang TTM (2006) Effect of Bradyrhizobia and phosphate solubilizing bacteria application on soybean in rotational system in the Mekong delta. Omonrice 14:48–57Google Scholar
  81. Stephens JHG, Rask HM (2000) Inoculant production and formulation. Field Crop Res 65:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trivedi P, Pandey A, Palni LM (2005) Carrier–based preparations of plant growth–promoting bacterial inoculants suitable for use in cooler regions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:941–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Trivedi P, Pandey A, Palni LS (2012) Bacterial inoculants for field applications under mountain ecosystem: present initiatives and future prospects. In: Maheshwari DE (ed) Bacteria in agrobiology: plant probiotics. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 15–44Google Scholar
  84. Turan M, Gulluce M, Şahin F (2012) Effects of plant–growth–promoting rhizobacteria on yield, growth, and some physiological characteristics of wheat and barley plants. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 43:1658–1673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. UNEP (2008) In dead water. Merging of climate change with pollution, over–harvest, and infestations in the world’s fishing grounds. UNEP/GRID–Arendal, Arendal, Norway. Available online at:
  86. Valverde A, Velazquez E, Santos FF, Vizcaino N, Rivas R, Mateos PF, Molina EM, Igual JM, Willems A (2005) Phyllobacterium trifolii sp. nov., nodulating Trifolium and Lupinus in Spanish soils. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55:1985–1989CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Van Dyke MI, Prosser JI (2000) Enhanced survival of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil following establishment of inoculum in a sterile soil carrier. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1377–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vardharajula S, Ali SZ, Grover M, Reddy G, Bandi V (2011) Drought–tolerant plant growth promoting Bacillus spp.: effect on growth, osmolytes, and anti–oxidant status of maize under drought stress. J Plant Interact 6:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu SC, Caob ZH, Lib ZG, Cheung KC, Wong MH (2005) Effects of biofertilizer containing N–fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu Z, Zhao Y, Kaleem I, Li C (2011) Preparation of calcium alginate microcapsuled microbial fertilizer coating Klebsiella oxytoca Rs–5 and its performance under salinity stress. Eur J Soil Biol 47:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yasmin S, Hafeez F, Schmid M, Hartmann A (2013) Plant–beneficial rhizobacteria for sustainable increased yield of cotton with reduced level of chemical fertilizer. Pak J Bot 45:655–662Google Scholar
  92. Yildirim E, Turan M, Ekinci M, Dursun A, Cakmakci R (2011) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorate deleterious effect of salt stress on lettuce. Sci Res Essays 6(20):4389–4396Google Scholar
  93. Zafar–ul–Hye M, Farooq HM, Zahir ZA, Hussain M, Hussain A (2014) Application of ACC–deaminase containing rhizobacteria with fertilizer improves maize production under drought and salinity stress. Int J Agric Biol 16:591–596Google Scholar
  94. Zahir ZA, Shah MK, Naveed M, Akhtar MJ (2010) Substrate dependent auxin production by Rhizobium phaseoli improve the growth and yield of Vigna radiate L under salt stress conditions. J Microbiol Biotechnol 20:1288–1294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF)Institute for Landscape BiogeochemistryMünchebergGermany
  2. 2.Plant Pathology Department, West Central Research & Extension CenterUniversity of Nebraska–LincolnNorth PlatteUSA

Personalised recommendations