Advertisement

Rhizosphere Engineering: An Innovative Approach for Sustainable Crop Production in Sodic Soils

  • T. Damodaran
  • V. K. Mishra
Chapter

Abstract

This paper discusses the challenges in the management of salt-affected soils and strategies for manipulating the rhizosphere of sodic soils through the rhizosphere engineering approach. The basic objective lies in utilization of the microbial diversity in the rhizosphere for inducing system tolerance to plants against the salt stress and also identification of potential rhizoshperic microbial community with enhanced growth promotion properties and utilization of these microbes for enhancing the productivity through suitable mass multiplication protocol on a dynamic media and substrate. Understanding the physiology and mechanism of the plant growth-promoting microorganisms forms the basic and fundamental approach to engineer them in the plant system using various delivery methods. Prominent mechanisms involved in growth promotion are solubilization of the phosphorus that is in unavailable form in the soil; production of ACC deaminase an enzyme that curtails the production of ethylene, the senescence hormone under the salt-affected environment; increase in the auxin content in the roots; and imparting tolerance to biotic stress through production of siderophores. The activity of root-associated bacterial communities also can be enhanced by soil amendment through utilization of dynamic organic substrate, a process that has allowed the selection of bacterial consortia that can interfere with reducing the soil pH through secretion of organic acids. Combinations of beneficial bacterial strains that interact synergistically with the dynamic substrate show a promising trend in the field of inoculation technology for attributing tolerance to sodicity and promoting growth of crops.

Keywords

Salt Stress Gluconic Acid Phosphate Solubilization Trichoderma Harzianum Sodic Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander M (2011) Introduction of soil microbiology, 2nd edn. Krieger, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  2. Altland JE (2006) Substrate pH, a tricky topic. Digger 50:42–47Google Scholar
  3. Aly MM, Tork S, Al-Garni S, Nawar L (2012) Production of lipase from genetically improved Streptomyces exfoliates LP10 isolated from oil contaminated soil. Afr J Microbiol Res 5(29):1125–1137Google Scholar
  4. Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (1993) Microbial production of plant growth regulators. In: Meeting FB (ed) Soil microbial ecology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 307–347Google Scholar
  5. Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress tolerance. Environ Exp Bot 59:206–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Azam F, Memon GH (1996) Soil organisms. In: Bashir E, Bantel R (eds) Soil science. National Book Foundation, Islamabad, pp 200–232Google Scholar
  7. Bano A, Batool R, Dazzo F (2010) Adaptation of chickpea to desiccation stress is enhanced by symbiotic rhizobia. Symbiosis 50:129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barea JM, Brown ME (1974) Effects on plant growth by Azotobacter paspali related to synthesis of plant growth regulating substances. J Appl Bacteriol 37:583–593CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barea JM, Navarro E, Montoya E (1976) Production of plant growth regulators by rhizosphere phosphate solubilizing bacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 40:129–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolan NS, Currie LD, Baskaran S (1996) Assessment of the influence of phosphate fertilizers on the microbial activity of pasture soils. Biol Fertil Soils 21:284–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowen GD, Rovira AD (1999) The rhizosphere and its management to improve plant growth. Adv Agron 66:1–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown ME (1974) Seed and root bacterization. Annu Rev Phytopathol 12:181–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chakraborty U, Roy S, Chakraborty AP, Dey P, Chakraborty B (2011) Plant growth promotion and amelioration of salinity stress in crop plants by a salt-tolerant bacterium. Recent Res Sci Technol 3:61–70Google Scholar
  14. Chookietwattana K, Maneewan K (2012) Screening of efficient halotolerant phosphate solubilizing bacterium and its effect on promoting plant growth under saline conditions. World Appl Sci J 16(8):1110–1117Google Scholar
  15. Cicek N, Cakirlar H (2002) The effect of salinity on some physiological parameters in two maize cultivars. BULG. J Plant Physiol 28:66–74Google Scholar
  16. Damodaran T, Mishra VK, Sharma DK, Jha SK, Verma CL, Rai RB, Kannan R, Nayak AK, Dhama K (2013a) Management of sub-soil sodicity for sustainable banana production in sodic soil – an approach. Int J Curr Res 5:1930–1934Google Scholar
  17. Damodaran T, Rai RB, Sharma DK, Mishra VK, Jha SK (2013b) Rhizosphere engineering-An approach for sustainable vegetable production in sodic soils. National symposium on abiotic and biotic stress management in vegetable crops, North America. http://conference.isvs.org.in/Index.php/conf_Doc/ncab/paper/view/382
  18. Damodaran T, Vijaya S, Rai RB, Sharma DK, Mishra VK, Jha SK, Kannan R (2013a) Isolation of rhizospheric bacteria by natural selection and screening for PGPR and salt tolerance traits. Afr J Microbiol 7(44):5082–5089Google Scholar
  19. Damodaran T, Rai RB, Kannan R, Pandey BK, Sharma DK, Misra VK, Vijayalaxmi S, Jha SK (2014) Rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria for induction of salt tolerance in gladiolus grown in sodic soils. J Plant Interact 9(1):577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Damodaran T, Rai RB, Kannan R, Pandey BK, Sharma DK, Misra VK, Jha SK (2015) Efficiency of Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus thuringiensis as biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. solani on tomato plants grown in sodic soils. J Soil Salinity Water Qual 5(2):101–105Google Scholar
  21. Dilfuza J, Dilfuza D (2011) Evaluation of root associated bacteria for control of cotton root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum in salinated soils. Iğdır Univ J Inst Sci Technol 1: 37–42Google Scholar
  22. Dimkpka C, Weinand T, Asch F (2009) Plant–rhizobacteria interactions alleviate abiotic stress conditions. Plant Cell Environ 32(12):1682–1694, ISSN 1365-3040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dommergues YR (1978) The plant micro-organism system. In: Dommergues YR, Krupa SV (eds) Interaction between non-pathogenic soil micro-organisms and plants. Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, pp 1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dwivedi D, Johri BN (2003) Antifungals from fluorescent pseudomonads: biosynthesis and regulation. Curr Sci 12:1693–1703Google Scholar
  25. Egamberdieva D (2009) Alleviation of salt stress by plant growth regulators and IAA producing bacteria in wheat. Acta Physiologieae Plant 31:861–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Egamberdieva D (2012) Pseudomonas chlororaphis: a salt-tolerant bacterial inoculant for plant growth stimulation under saline soil conditions. Acta Physiologieae Plant 34:71–56Google Scholar
  27. Figueiredo MVB, Burity HA, Martinez CR, Chanway CP (2008) Alleviation of drought stress in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by co-inoculation with Paenibacillus polymyxa and Rhizobium tropici. Appl Soil Ecol 40:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fravel DR (2005) Commercialization and implementation of biocontrol. Annu Rev Phytopathol 43:337–359CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gaur AC (2006) Biofertilizers in sustainable agriculture. Directorate of Information and Publication, Indian Council of agricultural Research, New Delhi, p 288Google Scholar
  30. Glick BR, Penrose DM, Li J (1998) A model for lowering plant ethylene concentration by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Theor Biol 190:63–68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Glickmann E, Dessaux Y (1995) A critical examination of the specificity of the Salkowski reagent for indolic compounds produced by phytopathogenic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:793–796PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Gul B, Khan MA, Weber DJ (2000) Alleviation salinity and dark-enforced dormancy in Allenrolfea occidentalis seeds under various thermoperiods. Aust J Bot 48:745–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gupta RK, Abrol IP (2000) Salinity build-up and changes in the rice–wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Exp Agric 36:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gyaneshwar P, Naresh KG, Parekh LJ, Poole PS (2002) Role of soil microorganisms in improving P nutrition of plants. Plant Soil 245:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Halder AK, Chakrabarty PK (1993) Solubilization of inorganic phosphate by Rhizobium. Folia Microbiol 38:325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Halder AK, Mishra AK, Chakrabartty PK (1990) Solubilization of phosphatic compounds by Rhizobium. Indian J Microbiol 30:311–314Google Scholar
  37. Hallmann J, Quadt-Hallmann A, Mahaffee WF, Kloepper JW (1997) Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol 43:577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammerschmidt R, Kúc J (1995) Induced resistance to disease in plants. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Havlin J, Beaton J, Tisdale SL, Nelson W (1999) Soil fertility and fertilizers. An introduction to nutrient management. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  40. Hinsinger P, Plassard C, Tang CX, Jaillard B (2003) Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: a review. Plant Soil 248:43–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hirt H (ed) (2009) Plant stress biology: from genomics to systems biology. Wiley, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  42. Hontzeas N, Zoidakis J, Glick BR, Abu-omar MM (2004) Expression and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4: a key enzyme in bacterial plant growth promotion. Biochim Biophys Acta 1703:11–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kannan R, Damodaran T, Umamaheshwari S (2015) Sodicity tolerant polyembryonic mango root stock plants: a putative role of endophytic bacteria. Afr J Biotechnol 14(4):350–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karuppasamy K, Nagaraj S, Kathiresan K (2011) Stress tolerant rhizobium enhances the growth of Samanea saman (JACQ) merr. Afr J Basic Appl Sci 3(6):278–284Google Scholar
  45. Khan AA, Jilani G, Akhtar MS, Naqvi SMS, Rasheed M (2009) Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: occurrence, mechanisms and their role in crop production. J Agric Biol Sci 1:48–58Google Scholar
  46. Kim KY, McDonald GA, Jordan D (1997) Solubilization of hydroxyapatite by Enterobacter agglomerans and cloned Escherichia coli in culture medium. Biol Fertil Soils 24:347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Klee HJ, Hayford MB, Kretzmer KA, Barry GF, Kishore GM (1991) Control of ethylene synthesis by expression of a bacterial enzyme in transgenic tomato plants. Plant Cell 3:1187–1193CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Kleiber T, Markiewicz B, Niewiadomska A (2012) Organic substrates for intensive horticultural cultures: yield and nutrient status of plants, microbiological parameters of substrates. Pol J Environ Stud 21:1261–1271Google Scholar
  49. Kloepper JW, Ryu CM, Zhang S (2004) Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology 94(11):1259–1266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Leite MCBS, de Farias ARB, Freire FJ, Andreote FD, Sobral JK, Freire MBGS (2014) Isolation, bioprospecting and diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria associated with sugarcane in soils of Pernambuco. Braz Rev Bras Eng Agríc Amb 18:S73–S79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lucangeli C, Bottini R (1996) Reversion of dwarfism in dwarf-1 maize (Zea mays L.) and dwarf-x rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutants by endophytic Azospirillum spp. Biocell 20:223–228Google Scholar
  52. Luz WC (2003) Avaliacao dos tratamentos biologico e quımico na reducao de patogenos em semente de trigo. Fitopatol Bras 28:093–095Google Scholar
  53. Manjunath A, Mohan R, Bagyaraj DJ (1983) Responses of citrus to VAM inoculation in unsterile soils. Can J Bot 61:2779–2732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mariano RLR, Medeiros FHV, Albuquerque VV, Assis SMP, Mello MRF (2004) Growth-promotion and biocontrol of diseases in fruits and ornamentals in the states of Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. In: Kobayashi K, Gasoni L, Terashima H (eds) Biological control of soilborne plant diseases. JICA, Buenos Aires, pp 70–80Google Scholar
  55. Nandakumar R, Viswanathan R, Babu S, Sheela J, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2001) A new bio-formulation containing plant growth promoting rhizobacterial mixture for the management of sheath blight and enhanced grain yield in rice. BioControl 46:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Neumann G, Romheld V (2007) The release of root exudates as affected by the root physiological status. In: Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (eds) The rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 23–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nieto KF, Frankenberger WT Jr (1990) Microbial production of cytokinins. In: Bollag JM, Stotzky G (eds) Soil biochem, vol 6. Dekker, New York, pp 191–248Google Scholar
  58. Penrose DM, Glick BR (2003) Methods for isolating and characterizing ACC deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Physiol Plant 118:10–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Pinton R, Varanini Z, Nannipieri P (2007) The rhizosphere: biochemistry and organic substances at the soil-plant interface. CRC, Boca Raton, p 472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ryan PR, Delhaize E, Jones DL (2001) Function and mechanism of organic anion exudation from plant roots. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol l52:527–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ryan PR, Dessaux Y, Linda ST, Weller DM (2009) Rhizosphere engineering and management for sustainable agriculture. Plant Soil 321:363–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shaharoona B, Arshad M, Zahir ZA (2006) Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase on maize (Zea mays L.) growth under axenic conditions and on nodulation in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Lett Appl Microbiol 42:155–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Skrary FA, Cameron DC (1998) Purification and characterization of a Bacillus licheniformis phosphatase specific for D-alphaglycerphosphate. Arch Biochem Biophys 349:27–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Srivastava AK, Singh S, Huchche AD (2012) Evaluation of INM in citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco): biometric response, soil carbon and nutrient dynamics. Int J Innov Hortic 1(2):126–134Google Scholar
  65. Steenhoudt O, Vanderleyden J (2000) Azospirillum, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium closely associated with grasses: genetic, biochemical and ecological aspects. FEMS Microbiol Rev 24:487–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Vance C, Uhde-Stone C, Allan DL (2003) Phosphorus acquisition and use: critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New Phytol 157:423–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang Y, Brown HN, Crowley DE, Szaniszlo PJ (1993) Evidence for direct utilization of a siderophore, ferrioxamine B, in axenically grown cucumber. Plant Cell Environ 16(5):579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wu Z, Peng Y, Guo L, Li C (2014) Root colonization of encapsulated Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton plants and its promoting growth performance under salinity stress. Eur J Soil Biol 60:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Xie H, Pasternak JJ, Glick BR (1996) Isolation and characterization of mutants of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida GR-122 that over produce indoleacetic acid. Curr Microbiol 32:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yang J, Kloepper JW, Ryu CM (2009) Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci 14(1):1–4CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Yi Y, Huang W, Ge Y (2008) Exopolysaccharide: a novel important factor in the microbial dissolution of tricalcium phosphate. World J Microb Biotechnol 24:1059–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zaidi A, Khan MS, Ahemad M, Oves M, Wani PA (2009) Recent advances in plant growth promotion by phosphate-solubilizing microbes. In: Khan MS et al (eds) Microbial strategies for crop improvement. Springer, Berlin, pp 23–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhou K, Binkley D, Doxtader KG (1992) A new method for estimating gross phosphorus mineralization and immobilization rates in soils. Plant Soil 147:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteRegional Research StationLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations