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Climate Change vis-a-vis Saline Agriculture: Impact and Adaptation Strategies

  • J. C. Dagar
  • P. C. Sharma
  • S. K. Chaudhari
  • H. S. Jat
  • Sharif Ahamad
Chapter

Abstract

During the last two decades, the world has recognized that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHGs), namely, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), have increased markedly as a result of human activities. During pre-industrial era (1750 AD), their concentrations were 280 ppm, 715 ppb and 270 ppb, respectively, and these values have increased to 385 ppm, 1797 ppb and 322 ppb, respectively, in 2008. Increase in atmospheric CO2 promotes growth and productivity of plants with C3 photosynthetic pathway, but the increase in temperature, on the other hand, can reduce crop duration, increase crop respiration rates, affect the survival and distribution of pest populations and may hasten nutrient mineralization in soil, decrease fertilizer use efficiency and increase evapotranspiration and soil salinity. The water resources which are already scarce may come under enhanced stress. In the scenario of sea-level rise due to climate change, the inundated area with sea water will increase influencing the crop production due to higher salinity. Thus, the impact of climate change is likely to have a significant influence on agriculture and eventually on the food security and livelihoods of a large section of the rural population. There are evidences of negative impacts on yield of crops with variable magnitude in diverse ecologies including soil salinity and waterlogging particularly in the developing countries. Adaptation strategies and mitigation through perennial cropping systems such as agroforestry can be the main approach in handling climate change and salinity-related problems.

Upscaling of modern technologies such as conservation and smart agriculture, judicious utilization of available water (including poor-quality water) for agriculture through micro-irrigation and water-saving technologies, developing multiple stress-tolerant crops through molecular biological tools, restoration of degraded soils and waters, promoting carbon sequestration preferably through efficient agroforestry practices and conservation of biodiversity should be promoted at regional and country level. We need to formulate both short-term and long-term policies for improvement, sustenance and protection of natural resources. There is a need of capacity building and international collaboration in developing database for efficient weather forecasting and handling salinity-related problems and preparing contingency plans for vulnerable areas. The objectives of this paper are to summarize the information available on the mitigation options and adaptation strategies for climate change and rehabilitation of saline and waterlogged habitats to meet the food security especially in India.

Keywords

Rice Straw Conservation Agriculture Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Silvopastoral System Sodic Soil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Dagar
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. C. Sharma
    • 1
  • S. K. Chaudhari
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. S. Jat
    • 3
  • Sharif Ahamad
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research InstituteKarnalIndia
  2. 2.NRM DivisionPusaIndia
  3. 3.CIMMYTNew DelhiIndia

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