Low-Cost Remediation and On-Farm Management Approaches for Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture

  • Khajanchi LalEmail author
  • Ravinder Kaur
  • K. G. Rosin
  • Neelam Patel


As freshwater sources become scarcer, wastewater use has become an inevitable and attractive option for conserving and expanding available water supplies worldwide. In low-income countries where urban agriculture provides livelihood opportunities and food security, irrigation is the most prominent and the most rapidly expanding use of wastewater. Even though the opportunities like reliable resource for supporting livelihoods and improving living standards for the urban poor are coupled with wastewater irrigation, still some risks cannot be neglected. Wastewater is a serious source of contamination for natural resources and disproportionally affects farmers and consumers due to microbial and chemical health risks. By adopting strategic risk assessment and management, framework allows reducing risks associated with wastewater irrigation. A combination of management and treatment measures which are low cost, low tech, and eco-friendly along with strategically focused policies and action plans needs to be formulated for safe and sustainable use of wastewater.


Biochemical Oxygen Demand Fecal Coliform Drip Irrigation System Wastewater Irrigation Risk Quotient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khajanchi Lal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ravinder Kaur
    • 1
  • K. G. Rosin
    • 1
  • Neelam Patel
    • 1
  1. 1.Water Technology CentreIARINew DelhiIndia

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