Agriculture sector plays a pivotal role in ensuring food and livelihood security and sustainable economic development. This sector, over the years, has been confronted with many challenges. Global warming and resource degradation are major challenges being faced by this sector in present scenario. Global warming and aberrations in climate particularly in rainfall are the reality, which the farmers are facing on day-to-day basis. In coastal areas due to sea level rise, the saline areas are increasing, and we would have to develop new technologies of increasing crop productivity in these areas. In future, agricultural use of poor-quality waters is inevitable. So far conventional methods of survey and reclamation of salt-affected soils are followed. In present publication, modern tools and techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of salty soils and poor-quality waters have been discussed. For enhancing crop productivity from salty lands, approaches of stimulating soil biological processes and use of nanotechnology have been explored. So far very little is known about the role of microbiology in soil reclamation processes. An innovative approach in the field of rhizosphere engineering leading to sustainable crop production in sodic soils has been discussed. Integrated drainage solutions for reclaiming saline soils have been suggested. Possibilities of several alternatives to utilize sodic, saline, and other poor-quality waters have been explored. So far agroforestry was considered only a sustainable farming system, but its other role as a problem-solving and remunerative tool for degraded land and water resources is quite eminent now. Besides providing livelihood security to poor families, it provides for an immense scope of environmental services. Next-generation problems such as contamination of soil and underground water due to fluoride and arsenic have been discussed at length. On the whole different chapters are compiled in a mode to bring out the diversified role of saline agriculture in tackling complex problem of salinity and waterlogging and safer management of poor-quality waters.