Advertisement

Plant Survival Under Natural UV Radiation on Earth: UV Adaptive/UV-Adapted Traits

  • Swati Sen Mandi
Chapter

Abstract

Plants, serving as primary producers, are central to perpetuation of life on earth. Being equipped with the unique feature of cellular plasticity, plants exhibit flexibility in temporal cell molecular rearrangements as a means of adjustment to variation in ambient UV radiation. In the “post ozone hole” era, when enhanced UV fluence challenges survival of life forms on earth it is imperative to develop in depth understanding on UV acclimation related variation in traits of ecological significance and thus of evolutionary potential in plants.

While high-intensity UV radiation at high intensity induces cell molecular damages, UV fluence retrieved after transmission through weather fluctuation-related diurnal/aerosol/cloud cover as intermittent low-dose UV radiation epigenetically upregulates the synthesis of enzymes for (i) enhancement of UV protective compounds viz. flavonoids (specifically synthesized in plants) that function as internal UV screen and also as antioxidants for countering UV-induced oxidative damage and for (ii) repair of macromolecules, viz., DNA. Such cell molecular events (with flavonoids as the key player) orchestrate typical phenotypic outcomes manifested as UV adaptive traits that confer “fitness advantage” under potentially damaging UV radiation. The flexibility of UV adaptive plants to adjust with variation in UV environment make them ecologically significant.

During prolonged persistence under high-intensity UV radiation and associated recurring weather fluctuation-related low-dose UV fluence, the UV adaptive epigenetic traits are likely to be imprinted in the genome thereby establishing (UV adapted / ‘fixed’ trait (cf constitutive traits). UV adapted plants with ‘fixed trait’, remain unchanged through short term variation in UV ambience; such traits exhibit evolutionary potential.

Stability of UV adapted traits, particularly with respect to flavonoids that being specifically synthesized in plants (as an UV acclimation strategy), provide useful compounds of medicinal (antioxidative) potential. This makes these genotypes suitable for exploitation (using conventional/modern biotechnological means). Applications of biotechnology for overexpressing secondary metabolites viz. flavonoids of human interest in some crop plants are delineated in this chapter.

A case study on transmission of UV adapted trait (viz. seed viability) through marker assisted breeding has been elaborated in this chapter to exemplify conventional practice of using cultivars with fixed UV adapted traits in cultivation programmes regardless of UV fluence at different cultivation sites.

Keywords

Marker Assisted Breeding Seed Vigour Tartary Buckwheat High Vigour Germination Performance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Abdin MZ, Kamaluddin (2006) Improving quality of medicinal herbs through physiochemical and molecular approaches. In: Abdin MZ, Abrol YP (eds) Traditional systems of medicine. Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 30–33Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal AA (1999) Induced responses to herbivory in wild radish: effects on several herbivores and plant fitness. Ecology 53:1713–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal AA, Strauss SY, Stout MJ (1999) Costs of induced responses and tolerance to herbivory in male and female fitness components of wild radish. Evolution 53:1093–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen DJ, Nogue’s S, Morison JIL, Greenslade PD, McLeod AR, Baker NR (1999) A 30% increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field. Glob Chang Biol 5(2):235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpert P, Simms EL (2002) The relative advantages of plasticity and fixity in different environments: when is it good for a plant to adjust? Evol Ecol 16:285–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alvero-Bascos EM, Ungson LB (2012) Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Philipp Agric Sci 95(4):335–343Google Scholar
  7. Arnone ML, Davidson EH (1997) The hard-wiring of development: organization and function of genomic regulatory systems. Development 124:1851–1864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ballare’ CL, Barnes PW, Flint SD, Price S (1995) Inhibition of hypocotyls elongation by ultraviolet-B radiation in de-etiolating tomato seedlings. II. Time-course, comparison with flavonoid responses and adaptive significance. Physiol Plant 83:593–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes PW, Flint SD, Caldwell MM (1990) Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultra-violet-B radiation. Am J Bot 77:1354–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes PW, Maggard S, Holman SR, Vergara B (1993) Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to UV-B radiation in rice. Crop Sci 33:1041–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barthod S, Cerovic Z, Epron D (2007) Can dual chlorophyll fluorescence excitation be used to assess the variation in the content of UV-absorbing phenolic compounds in leaves of temperate tree species along a light gradient? J Exp Bot 58:1753–1760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bieza K, Lois R (2001) An Arabidopsis mutant tolerant to lethal ultra-violet B levels shows constitutively elevated accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolics. Plant Physiol 126:1105–1115CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Biggs RH, Kossuth SV, Teramura AH (1981) Response of 19 cultivars of soybeans to ultraviolet-B irradiance Physiol. Plant 53:19–26Google Scholar
  14. Björn LO, Callaghan TV, Johnsen I (1997) The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species. Plant Ecol 128:252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blumthaler M, Amback W (1990) Indication of increasing solar UV-B radiation flux in alpine regions. Science 248:206–208CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradshaw AD (1965) Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity. Genetics 13:115–155Google Scholar
  17. Brosche M, Strid A (2003) Molecular events following perception of ultraviolet-B radiation by plants. Physiol Plant 117:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown BA, Jenkins GI (2008) UV-B signaling pathways with different fluence-rate response profiles are distinguished in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue by requirement for UVR8, HY5, and HYH. Plant Physiol 146:576–588CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown BA, Cloix C, Jiang GH, Kaiserli E, Herzyk P, Kliebenstein DJ et al (2005) A UV-B-specific signaling component orchestrates plant UV protection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18225–18230CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Caldwell MM, Teramura AH, Tevini M (1989) The changing solar ultraviolet climate and the ecological consequences for higher plants. Trends Ecol Evol 4:363–367CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Caldwell MM, Bjorn LO, Bomman JF, Flint SD, Kulandaivelu G, Teramura M, Tevini M (1994) Effect of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystem. J Photochem Photobiol 46(5):40–52Google Scholar
  22. Caldwell MM, Teramura AH, Tevini M, Bornman JF, Bjorn LO, Kulandaivellu G (1995) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants. Ambio 24:166–173Google Scholar
  23. Caretto S, Linsalata V, Colella G, Mita G, Lattanzio V (2015) Carbon fluxes between primary metabolism and phenolic pathway in plant tissues under stress. Int J Mol Sci 16(11):26378–26394CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Casal JJ, Ballare CL, Tourn M, Sanchez RA (1994) Anatomy, growth and survival of a long-hypocotyl mutant of Culcuinis satihus deficient in phytochrome B. Ann Bot 73:569–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen L, Niu K, Wu Y, Geng Y, Mi Z, Flynn DFB, He J-S (2013) UV radiation is the primary factor driving the variation in leaf phenolics across Chinese grasslands. Ecol Evol 3(14):4696–4710CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Correia CM, Areal ELV, Torres-Pereira MS, Torres-Pereira JMG (1999) Intraspecific variation in sensitivity to ultraviolet-B radiation in maize grown under field conditions. I. Growth and morphological aspects. Field Crop Res 59:81–89Google Scholar
  27. Dai Q, Peng S, Chavez AQ, Miranda MML, Vergara BS, Olszyk DM (1997) Supplemental Ultraviolet-B radiation does not reduce growth or grain yield in rice. Results from a 7-season field study. Agro J 89:793–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Day TA, Vogelmann TC, DeLucia EH (1992) Are some plant life forms more effective than others in screening out ultraviolet-B radiation? Oecologia 92:513–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Deavours BE, Dixon RA (2005) Metabolic engineering of isoflavonoid biosynthesis in Alfalfa. Plant Physiol 138:2245–2259CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Dhar MK, Koul A, Kaul S (2013) Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase: a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and potential molecular target for drug development. New Biotechnol 30(2):114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dixon P, Weinig C, Schmitt J (2001) Susceptibility to UV damage in impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae): testing for opportunity costs to shade-avoidance and population differentiation. Am J Bot 88:1401–1408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dubest S, Gallego ME, White CI (2002) Role of the AtRad1p endonuclease in homologous recombination in plants. EMBO Rep 3:1049–1054CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Dudley SA, Schmitt J (1996) Testing the adaptive plasticity hypothesis: density dependent selection on manipulated stem length in Impatiens capensis. Am Nat 147:445–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Filella I, Peñuelas J (1999) Altitudinal differences in UV absorbance, UV reflectance and related morphological traits of Quercus ilex and Rhododendron ferrugineum in the Mediterranean region. Plant Ecol 145:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fraser PD, Ro¨mer S, Shipton CA, Mills PB, Kiano JW, Misawa N, Drake RG, Schuch W, Bramley PM (2002) Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants expressing an additional phytoene synthase in a fruit-specific manner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:1092–1097CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Frohnmeyer H, Loyall L, Blatt MR, Grabov A (1999) Millisecond UV-B irradiation evokes prolonged elevation of cytosolic-free Ca2+ and stimulates gene expression in transgenic parsley cell cultures. Plant J 20:109–117CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ganguli S, Das G, Ganguli S, Das G, Sen-Mandi (1992) Plant emergence and productivity of different vigour of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Indian J Agr Sci 62(3):224–227Google Scholar
  38. Ghosh S, Sen Mandi S. Methylation status of ACCase promoter affects seed vigour-viability trait in Oryza sativa L. varieties. Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  39. Gonzalez R, Paul ND, Percy K, Ambrose M, McLaughlin CK, Barnes JD, Areses M, Wellburn AR (1996) Responses to ultraviolet-B radiation (280–315 nm) of pea (Pisum sativum) lines differing in leaf surface wax. Physiol Plant 98:852–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hectors K, Prinsen E, De Coen W, Jansen MA, Guisez Y (2007) Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to low dose rates of ultraviolet B radiation show specific changes in morphology and gene expression in the absence of stress symptoms. New Phytol 175:255–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hidema J, Kumagai T (2006) Sensitivity of rice to ultraviolet-B radiation. Ann Bot 97:933–942CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Hidema J, Kang H-S, Kumagai T (1996) Differences in the sensitivity to UV-B radiation of two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Physiol 37:742–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hofmann RW, Jahufer MZZ (2011) Tradeoff between biomass and flavonoid accumulation in white clover reflects contrasting plant strategies. PLoS One 6(4):e18949. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018949 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Hutchinson F (1987) A review of some topics concerning mutagenesis by ultraviolet light. Photochem Photobiol 45:897–903CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jansen MAK, Coffey AM, Prinsen E (2010) UV-B induced morphogenesis. Plant Signal Behav 7(9):1185–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jenkins GI (2014) Structure and function of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8. Curr Opin Struct Biol 29:52–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kakani VG, Reddy KR, Zhao D, Mohammed AR (2003) Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology and anatomy. Ann Bot 91:817–826CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Kalbina I, Strid A (2006) Supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation reveals differences in stress responses between Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. Plant Cell Environ 29:754–763CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kingsolver JG (1995) Viability selection on seasonally polyphenic traits: wing melanin pattern in western white butterflies. Evolution 49:932–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kliebenstein DJ, Lim JE, Landry LG, Robert L (2002) Arabidopsis UVR8 regulates ultraviolet-B signal transduction and tolerance and contains sequence similarity to human regulator of chromatin condensation I. Plant Physiol 130(1):234–243CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Kumagai T, Sato T (1992) Inhibitory effects of increase in near-UV radiation on the growth of Japanese rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in a phytotron and recovery by exposure to visible radiation. Jpn J Breed 42:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Levins R (1968) Evolution in changing environments. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  53. Lewinsohn E, Schalechet F, Wilkinson J, Matsui K, Tadmor Y, Kyoung-Hee Nam K-H et al (2001) Enhanced levels of the aroma and flavor compound S-Linalool by metabolic engineering of the terpenoid pathway in tomato fruits. Plant Physiol 127:1256–1265CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Lim H, Oudenaarden AV (2007) A multistep epigenetic switch enables the stable inheritance of DNA methylation states. Nat Genet 39(2):260–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lively CM (1986) Canalization verses developmental conversion in a spatially variable environment. Am Nat 128:561–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lively CM (1998) Developmental strategies in spatially variable environments: barnacle shell dimorphism and strategic models of selection. In: Tollrian J, Harvell CD (eds) The evolution of inducible defenses. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 245–258Google Scholar
  57. Lucas R, McMichael T, Smith W, Armstrong B (2006) Solar ultraviolet radiation. Global burden of disease from solar ultraviolet radiation. World Health Organization, Environmental Burden of Disease Series, 13Google Scholar
  58. Mahmoud SS, Croteau RB (2001) Metabolic engineering of essential oil yield and composition in mint by altering expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase and menthofuran synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:8915–8920CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Martienssen RA, Richards EJ (1995) DNA methylation in eukaryotes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:234–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mazza CA, Boccalandro HE, Giordano CV, Battista D, Scopel AL, Ballare CL (2000) Functional significance and induction by solar radiation of ultraviolet- absorbing sunscreens in field-grown soybean crops. Plant Physiol 122:117–125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Muir SR, Collins GJ, Robinson S, Hughes S, Bovy S, De Vos CH, van Tunen AJ, Verhoeyen ME (2001) Overexpression of petunia chalcone isomerase in tomato results in fruit containing increased levels of flavonols. Nat Biotechnol 19:470–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Niklas KJ (1992) Plant biomechanics-an engineering approach to plant form and function. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  63. Perkins MC, Roberts CJ, Briggs D, Davies MC, Friedmann A, Hart CA, Bell GA (2005) Surface morphology and chemistry of Prunus laurocerasus L. leaves: a study using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy. Planta 221:123–134CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Poorter H, Villar R (1997) The fate of acquired carbon in plants: chemical composition and construction costs. In: Bazzaz FA, Grace J (eds) Plant resource allocation. Academic, San Diego, pp 39–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Purugganan MD (2000) The molecular population genetics of regulatory genes. Mol Ecol 9:1451–1461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ramachandra Rao S, Ravishankar GA (2002) Plant cell cultures: chemical factories of secondary metabolites. Biotechnol Adv 20:101–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rollo CD (1994) Phenotypes: their epigenetics, ecology and evolution. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. Romer S, Fraser PD, Kiano JW, Shipton CA, Misawa N, Schuch W, Bramley PM (2000) Elevation of the provitamin A content of transgenic tomato plants. Nat Biotechnol 18:666–669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rozema J, Staaij J, Bjorn LO, Caldwell M (1997) UV-B as an environmental factor in plant life: stress and regulation. Trends Ecol Evol 12:22–28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Sajirani EB, Hadian J, Abdossi V, Larijani K (2014) Evaluation content of flavonoids and anthocyanins in Iranian borage (Echium amoenum fisch & mey) subjected in eshkevari accessions affected by different habitats in North of Iran. J Biodivers Environ Sci (JBES) 4(2):364–368Google Scholar
  71. Sakurai T, Kondou Y, Akiyama K, Kurotani A, Higuchi M (2011) RiceFOX: a database of Arabidopsis mutant lines overexpressing rice full-length cDNA that contains a wide range of trait information to facilitate analysis of gene function. Plant Cell Physiol 52(2):265–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sato T, Kang H-S, Kumagai T (1994) Genetic study of resistance to inhibitory effects of UV radiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Physiol Plant 91:234–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sato T, Ueda T, Fukuta Y, Kumagai T, Yano M (1997) Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with ultraviolet-B resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor Appl Genet 107:1003–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schlichting CD, Pigliucci M (1993) Evolution of phenotypic plasticity via regulatory genes. Am Nat 142:3660370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schmitt J, Wulff RD (1993) Light spectral quality, phytochrome and plant competition. Trends Ecol Evol 8:47–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Schmitt J, McCormac AC, Smith H (1995) A test of the adaptive plasticity hypothesis using transgenic and mutant plants disabled in phytochrome-mediated elongation responses to neighbors. Am Nat 146:937–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sévenier R, van der Meer IM, Bino R, Koops AJ (2002) Increased production of nutriments by genetically engineered crops. J Am Coll Nutr 21(3 Suppl):199S–204SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Shyam Choudhury S, Sen Mandi S (2012) Natural ultra violet radialtion on field grown rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants confer protection against oxidative stress in seed during storage under subtropical ambience. Environ Pollut 1(2):32–39Google Scholar
  79. Smith H (1990) Signal perception, differential expression within multigene families and the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity. Plant Cell Environ 13:585–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith H (2000) Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants – an emerging synthesis. Nature 407:585–591CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sullivan JH, Teramura AH, Ziska LH (1992) Variation in UV-B sensitivity in plants from a 3000m elevational gradient in Hawaii. Am J Bot 79:737–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Surani MA (1998) Imprinting and the initiation of gene silencing in the germ line. Cell 93:309–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Talai S (2010) Development of bio-molecular markers for vigour in rice seeds, Ph.D thesis, submitted to University of CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  84. Talai S, Sen-Mandi S (2010) Seed vigour-related DNA marker in rice shows homology with Acetyl CoA Carboxylase gene. Acta Physiol Plant 32:153–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Teramura AH, Sullivan JH (1991) Effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and growth of terrestrial plants. Photosynth Res 39:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Teramura AH, Sullivan JH (1992) Potential impacts of increased solar UV-B on global plant productivity. In: Riklis E (ed) Photobiology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 625–634Google Scholar
  87. Teramura AH, Sullivan JH (1994) Effects of UV-B radiation on photosynthesis and growth of terrestrial plants. Photosynth Res 39:463–473CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Teramura AH, Ziska LH, Sztein AE (1991) Changes in growth and photosynthetic capacity of rice with increased UV-B radiation. Physiol Plant 83:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Teranishi M, Iwamatsu Y, Hidema J, Kumagai T (2004) Ultraviolet-B sensitivities in Japanese lowland rice cultivars: cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase activity and gene mutation. Plant Cell Physiol 45:1845–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tevini M, Teramura AH (1989) UV-B effects on terrestrial plants. Photochem Photobiol 50:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Thompson JD (1991) Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change. Trends Ecol Evol 6:246–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Torabinejad J, Caldwell MM (2000) Inheritance of UV-B tolerance in seven ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. and their F1 hybrids. J Hered 91:228–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Tsaftaris AS, Polidoros A (2000) DNA methylation and plant breeding. In: Janick J (ed) Plant breeding reviews, vol 18. Wiley, New York, pp 18: 87–176. ISBN 0-471-35567-4Google Scholar
  94. Turck F, Coupland G (2014) Natural variation in epigenetic gene regulation and its effects on plant developmental traits. Evolution 68(3):620–631CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ulm R, Baumann A, Oravecz A, Mate Z, Adam E, Oakeley J, Schafer E, Nagy F (2004) Genome-wide analysis of gene expression reveals HY5 function in the UV-B response of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1397–1402CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Kleunen M, Fischer M (2005) Constraints on the evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in plants. New Phytol 166:49–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Tienderen P (1991) Evolution of generalists and specialists in spatially heterogeneous environments. Evolution 45:1317–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Van Tienderen PH, Van der Toorn J (1992) Genetic differentiation between populations of Plantago lanceolata. I. Local adaptation in three contrasting habitats. J Ecol 79:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verpoorte R, Memelink J (2002) Engineering secondary metabolite production in plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol 13(2):181–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Via S, Lande R (1985) Genotype-environment interaction and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Evolution 39:5055522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang E, Wang R, DeParasis J, Loughrin JH, Gan S, Wagner GJ (2001) Suppression of a P450 hydroxylase gene in plant trichome glands enhances natural-product-based aphid resistance. Nat Biotechnol 19:371–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Weinig C, Gravuer KA, Kane NC, Schmitt J (2004) Testing adaptive plasticity to UV: costs and benefits of stem elongation and light-induced phenolics. Evolution 58(12):2645–2656CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Yao Y, Xuan Z, He Y, Lutts S, Korpelainen H, Li C (2007) Principal component analysis of intraspecific responses of tartary buckwheat to UV-B radiation under field conditions. Environ Exp Bot 61:237–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ye X, Al-Babili S, Klöti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I (2000) Engineering the Provitamin A (β-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (Carotenoid-Free) rice endosperm. Science 287:303–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swati Sen Mandi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant BiologyBose InstituteKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations