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UV Signal Transduction for Countering Deleterious Effects of UV Radiation in Plant

  • Swati Sen Mandi
Chapter

Abstract

UV radiation, causes direct damage to macromolecules while at low intensity (resulting from transmission through aerosol/cloud cover) induces signal transduction mediated epigenetic upregulation of appropriate genes for synthesis of UV protective compounds/enzymes that collectively confer UV acclimation processes in plants. These secondary metabolites are specifically synthesized in plants through need based molecular rearrangements between primary and secondary metabolism enabled by the unique fearture of cellular plasticity in plants. For exerting the epigenetic effect of low dose UV radiation at a distance, i.e. from the site of perception, viz. the outer layer of epidermal cell to the genome, fluencing UV radiation takes recourse to the process of signal transduction either by UV induced damaged DNA or by wavelength specific photoreceptors. In plants, high intensity UV-induced damaged DNA, being recognized by orthologs of ATR and ATM proteins acting as sensor of DNA breaks (SSB and DSB), serves as signaling molecule for upregulation of DNA repair enzymes. In this signaling process, damaged DNA-induced cell cycle arrest allows time for DNA repair. UVR8 on perception of low-dose UV radiation (particularly UV-B) upregulates many genes related to the secondary metabolite pathways for synthesis of phenolics viz. flavonoids that, on accumulation (ununiformly) along inner surface of mesophyll cell, restrain (partially) UV entry into cells thereby conferring UV acclimation under high intensity UV radiation in plants. Other photoreceptors specifically associated with UV-A, viz., cryptochrome, phototropins, and members of the Zeitlupe family are also known in plants. The UV-A-related photoreceptors also function for the blue light region. UVR8 photoreceptor that is generally known to be associated with UV-B recently has been reported to be associated also with UV-A. Combined activities of photoreceptors enable plants to detect and respond to the presence, absence, intensity, as well as directionality and diurnal duration of impinging UV radiation.

In addition to specific photoreceptor mediated signaling, for upregulating cell protective events, mechanisms for nonspecific signaling mediated by a range of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exist in cells. UV-induced ROS in addition to causing oxidative damages to macromolecules induces upregulation of UV protective genes and often downregulation of UV responsive damaging genes to cope with the adverse effect of UV radiation. Thus through cell signaling mechanisms plants acclimatize to UV environment and flourish in spite of the deleterious effect of UV radiation.

Keywords

Specific Photoreceptor Sunburn Cell Uvr8 Mutant Ensure Plant Survival Phytochrome Signal Transduction Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swati Sen Mandi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant BiologyBose InstituteKolkataIndia

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