Advertisement

UV Acclimation Strategy in Plants

  • Swati Sen Mandi
Chapter

Abstract

Plants, growing naturally in the open field, despite their stationary habit that exposes them to uninterrupted atmospheric UV radiation with potential for causing extensive damage to life-forms, seldom exhibit UV-induced deleterious effect on growth and development. This apparent anomaly is explained by the fact that while UV at high intensity directly inflicts damaging effect on macromolecules, UV radiation at intermittently fluencing low dose (resulting from passage through oscillatory fluctuations in weather-related variation in aerosol/cloud cover), via photoreceptor-mediated signal transduction, epigenetically induces UV acclimation strategies in plants. Such mechanism constitutes prophylactic protection from UV radiation, providing the first line of defense. Such protective mechanism constitutes UV avoidance through UV-related upregulation in induction of internal UV screening compounds, viz., phenolics, particularly flavonoids. This is enabled by the unique plant-based feature of cellular plasticity, allowing molecular rearrangements that affect a trade-off between primary metabolism (for growth and development) and secondary metabolism for synthesis of flavonoids. Being deposited in epidermal cells, these compounds serve to restrain UV penetration into inner tissue. Due to structural specialization, flavonoids, in addition to providing internal UV screen, also provide antioxidative protection to (UV-induced or otherwise) ROS-mediated oxidative damage in cells. UV, at low dose, also upregulates antioxidative enzymes. Under cellular conditions that preclude enzymatic activity, nonenzymatic antioxidants, viz., flavonoids, may take charge: flavonoids, specifically synthesized in plants, may provide antioxidative protection in animal through dietary route. Plants avoid stress symptoms by taking to trait variation associated with UV acclimation. This is commonly evident as photomorphogenic effect such as inhibition of hypocotyl/stem extension. Such traits ensure protection of dividing cells of the emerging embryonic axis by avoiding UV exposure until cells of the embryonic axis may synthesize UV-protective compounds, viz., flavonoids, and also upregulation of CPD photolyase for repair of UV-induced DNA damage. While repair of DNA damage allows recovery, antioxidative protection allows retaliatory measures for countering UV damaging effect – both constituting part of UV acclimation strategy. Repair of DNA is also reported to occur under high-dose UV radiation; the induced damage is reinstated by homologous recombination. Species-based studies on UV acclimation mechanisms in plants elucidate an important role of the genetic complement in plants toward developing UV acclimation strategies.

Exemplary studies showcasing UV-induced damage and stimulated protection in two plant systems, (i) mature (dehydrated) rice seed during postharvest aging, collected from different locations, and (ii) young (new flush) tea leaf at different altitudes (within the same latitude), i.e., sites under different UV fluence, have also been included in this chapter.

Keywords

Photosynthetically Active Radiation Embryonic Axis Flavonoid Glycoside Varietal Difference Under Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Bibliography

  1. Adamse P, Britz SJ (1992) Amelioration of UV-B damage under high irradiance. I. Role of photosynthesis. Photochem Photobiol 56:645–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agati G, Tattini M (2010) Multiple functional roles of flavonoids in photoprotection. New Phytol 186:786–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agati G, Galardi C, Gravano E, Romani A, Tattini M (2002) Flavonoid distribution in tissues of Phillyrea latifolia as estimated by microspectrofluorometry and multispectral fluorescence microimaging. Photochem Photobiol 76:350–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agati G, Stefano G, Biricolti S, Tattini M (2009) Mesophyll distribution of ‘antioxidant’ flavonoid glycosides in Ligustrum vulgare leaves under contrasting sunlight irradiance. Ann Bot 104:853–861PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agati G, Biricolti S, Guidi L, Ferrini F, Fini A, Tattini M (2011) The biosynthesis of flavonoids is enhanced similarly by UV radiation and root zone salinity in L. vulgare leaves. J Plant Physiol 168:204–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agati G, Azzarello E, Pollastri S, Tattini M (2012) Flavonoids as antioxidants in plants: location and functional significance. Plant Sci 196:67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agati G, Brunetti C, Di Ferdinando M, Ferrini F, Pollastri S, Tattini M (2013) Functional roles of flavonoids in photoprotection: new evidence, lessons from the past. Plant Physiol Biochem 72:35–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Agrawal SB, Rathore D (2007) Changes in oxidative stress defense in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) cultivars grown with or without mineral nutrients and irradiated by supplemental ultraviolet-B. Environ Exp Bot 59:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahmad M, Jarillo JA, Klimczak LJ, Landry LG, Peng T, Last RL, Cashmore AR (1997) An enzyme similar to animal type II photolyases mediates photoreactivation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 9:199–207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ajavon AN, Albritton DL, Watson RT (2007) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion: 2006. Global ozone research and monitoring project, Report No. 50. World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva, p 572Google Scholar
  11. Albert A, Sareedenchai V, Heller W, Seidlitz HK, Zidorn C (2009) Temperature is the key to altitudinal variation of phenolics in Arnica montana L. cv. ARBO. Oecologia 160:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ålenius CM, Vogelmann TC, Bornman JF (1995) A three dimensional representation of the relationship between penetration of UV-B radiation and UV-screening pigments in leaves of Brassica napus. New Phytol 131:297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Allen DJ, Nogue’s S, Morison JIL, Greenslade PD, McLeod AR, Baker NR (1999) A 30% increase in UV-B has no impact on photosynthesis in well-watered and droughted pea plants in the field. Glob Chang Biol 5(2):235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Alscher RG, Donahue JL, Cramer CL (1997) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants: relationships in green cells. Physiol Plant 100(2):224–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alvero-Bascos EM, Ungson LB (2012) Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Philipp Agric Sci 95(4):335–343Google Scholar
  16. Apel K, Hirt H (2004) Reactive oxygen species: metabolism, oxidative stress, and signal transduction. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:373–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Babu S, Akhtar TA, Lampi MA, Tripuranthakam S, Dixon GR, Greenberg BM (2003) Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemma gibba: implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals. Plant Cell Physiol 44:1320–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baker NP, Nogues S, Allen DJ (1997) Photosynthesis and photoinhibition. In: Lumsden P (ed) Plants and UV-B: responses to environmental change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ballaré CL, Caldwell MM, Flint SD, Robinson SA, Bornman JF (2011) Effects of solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystems. Patterns, mechanisms, and interactions with climate change. Photochem Photobiol Sci 10:226–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barnes PW, Flint SD, Caldwell MM (1990) Morphological responses of crop and weed species of different growth forms to ultraviolet-B radiation. Am J Bot 77:1354–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barnes PW, Ballare’ CL, Caldwell MM (1996) Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation on plants: consequences for light competition. Plant Physiol 148:15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baroniya SS, Kataria S, Pandey GP, Guruprasad KN (2013) Intraspecific variations in antioxidant defense responses and sensitivity of soybean varieties to ambient UV radiation. Acta Physiol Plant 35(5):1521–1530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bar-Peled M, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J (1991) UDP-rhamnose: flavanone-7-O-glucoside-2″-O-rhamnosyltransferase: purification and characterization of an enzyme catalyzing the production of bitter compounds in citrus. J Biol Chem 266:20953–20959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bassman JH (2004) Ecosystem consequences of enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation: secondary plant metabolites as mediators of multiple trophic interactions in terrestrial plant communities. Photochem Photobiol 79:382–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Batschauer A (1999) Light perception in higher plants. Cell Mol Life Sci 55:153–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Baudry A, Heim MA, Dubreucq B, Caboche M, Weisshaar B, Lepiniec L (2004) TT2, TT8, and TTG1 synergistically specify the expression of BANYULS and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 39:366–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beggs CJ, Wellmann E (1994) Photocontrol of flavonoid biosynthesis. In: Kendrick RE, Kronenberg GHM (eds) Photomorphogenesis in plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 733–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beggs CJ, Wellmann E, Griesbach H (1986) Photocontrol of flavonoid biosynthesis. In: Kendrick RE, Kronenberg GMH (eds) Photomorphogenesis in plants. Martinus, Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 467–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Behn H, Albert A, Marx F, Noga G, Ulbrich A (2010) Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L). J Agric Food Chem 58:7361–7367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Berkelsar EJ, Ormrod DP, Hale BA (1996) The influence of photosynthetically active radiation on the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on arabidopsis thaliana. Photochem Photobiol 64(1):110–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Berli FJ, Moreno D, Piccoli P, Hespanhol-Viana L, Silva MF, Bressan-Smith R et al (2010) Abscisic acid is involved in the response of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaf tissues to ultraviolet-B radiation by enhancing ultraviolet-absorbing compounds, antioxidant enzymes and membrane sterols. Plant Cell Environ 33:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Beveridge CA, Mathesius U, Rose RJ, Gresshoff PM (2007) Common regulatory themes in meristem development and whole-plant homeostasis. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:44–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Biever JJ, Brinkman D, Gardener G (2014) UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation. J Exp Bot 65(11):2949–2961PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bieza K, Lois R (2001) An Arabidopsis mutant tolerant to lethal ultraviolet-B levels shows constitutively elevated accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolics. Plant Physiol 126:1105–1115PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Biggs RH, Kossuth SV, Teramura AH (1981) Response of 19 cultivars of soybeans to ultraviolet-B irradiance. Physiol Plant 53:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bilger W, Johnsen T, Schreiber U (2001) UV-excited chlorophyll fluorescence as a tool for the assessment of UV-protection by the epidermis of plants. J Exp Bot 52(363):2007–2014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Björn LO, Callaghan TV, Johnsen I et al (1997) The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species. Plant Ecol 128:252–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Blumthaler M, Amback W (1990) Indication of increasing solar UV-B radiation flux in alpine regions. Science 248:206–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Boccalandro HE, Mazza CA, Mazzella MA, Casal JJ, Ballare’ CL (2001) Ultraviolet B radiation enhances a phytochrome-B-mediated photomorphogenic response in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 126(2):780–788PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bornman JF (1989) Target sites of UV-B radiation in photosynthesis of higher plants. Photochem Photobiol 4:145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bornman JF, Vogelmann TC (1991) Effect of UV-B radiation on leaf optical properties measured with fibre optics. J Exp Bot 42:547–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bornman JF, Barnes PW, Robinson SA, Ballaré CL, Flint SD, Caldwell MM (2015) Solar ultraviolet radiation and ozone depletion-driven climate change: effects on terrestrial ecosystems. Photochem Photobiol Sci 14:88–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Britt AB (1999) Molecular genetics of DNA repair in higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 4:20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Britt AB (2004) Repair of DNA damage induced by solar UV. Photosynth Res 81:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Britt AB, May GD (2003) Re-engineering plant gene targeting. Trends Plant Sci 8:90–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brosche M, Strid A (2003) Molecular events following perception of ultraviolet-B radiation by plants. Physiol Plant 117:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brown BA, Jenkins GI (2008) UV-B signaling pathways with different fluence-rate response profiles are distinguished in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue by requirement for UVR8, HY5, and HYH. Plant Physiol 146:576–588PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Brown DE, Rashotte AM, Murphy AS, Normanly J, Tague BW, Peer WA, Taiz L, Muday GK (2001) Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 126:524–535PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Brown BA, Cloix C, Jiang GH, Kaiserli E, Herzyk P et al (2005) A UV-B-specific signaling component orchestrates plant UV protection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18225–18230PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Buer CS, Djordjevic MA (2009) Architectural phenotypes in the transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot 60:751–763PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Burchard P, Bilger W, Weissenböck G (2000) Contribution of hydroxycinnamates and flavonoids to epidermal shielding of UV-A and UV-B radiation in developing rye primary leaves as assessed by ultraviolet-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant Cell Environ 23:1373–1380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Burger J, Edwards GE (1996) Photosynthetic efficiency, and photodamage by UV and visible radiation, in red versus green leaf coleus varieties. Plant Cell Physiol 37:395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Caldwell MM, Robberecht R, Flint SD (1983a) Internal filters: prospects of UV-acclimation in higher plants. Physiol Plant 58:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Caldwell MM, Gold WG, Harris G, Ashurst CW (1983b) A modulated lamp system for solar UV-B (280–320 nm) supplementation studies in the field. Photochem Photobiol 37:479–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Caldwell MM, Teramura AH, Tevini M (1989) The changing solar UV climate an the ecological consequences for higher plants. Trends Ecol Evol 4:363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Caldwell MM, Flint SD, Searles PS (1994) Spectral balance and UV-B sensitivity of soybean: a field experiment. Plant Cell Environ 17:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Caldwell MM, Teramura AH, Tevini M, Bornman JF, Bjorn LO, Kulandaivellu G (1995) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants. Ambio 24:166–173Google Scholar
  58. Caldwell MM, Bornman JF, Ballare’ CL, Flint SD, Kulandaivelu G (2007) Terrestrial ecosystems, increased solar ultraviolet radiation, and interactions with other climate change factors. Photochem Photobiol Sci 6:252–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cantarello C, Volpe V, Azzolin C, Bertea C (2005) Modulation of enzyme activities and expression of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism in response to UV-B stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). J Plant Interact 1(3):151–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL (1997) Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships. Free Radic Biol Med 22:749–760PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Carletti P, Masi A, Wonisch A, Grill D, Tausz M, Ferretti M (2003) Changes in antioxidant and pigment pool dimensions in UV-B irradiated maize seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 50:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Carrao-Panizzi MC, Bordingnon JR (2000) Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment. Pesq Agrop Bras 35:873–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Casati P, Walbot V (2003) Gene expression profiling in response to UV radiation in maize genotypes with varying flavonoid content. Plant Physiol 132:1739–1754PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Casati P, Walbot V (2004) Crosslinking of ribosomal proteins to RNA in maize ribosomes by UV-B and its effects on translation. Plant Physiol 136:3319–3332PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Casati P, Morrow DJ, Fernandes JF, Walbot V (2011) UV-B signaling in maize: transcriptomic and metabolomic studies at different radiation times. Plant Signal Behav 6:1926–1931PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Cen Y-P, Bornman JF (1993) The effect of exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation on the penetration of monochromatic and polychromatic UV-B radiation in leaves of Brassica napus. Physiol Plant 87:249–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Cerovic ZG, Ounis A, Cartelat A, Latouche G, Goulas Y, Meyer S, Moya I (2002) The use of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra for the non-destructive in situ assessment of UV-absorbing compounds in leaves. Plant Cell Environ 25:1663–1676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Chappell J, Hahlbrock K (1984) Transcription of plant defence genes in response to UV light or fungal elicitor. Nature 311:76–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Chauhan DS, Deswal DP, Dahiya OS, Punia RC (2011) Change in storage enzymes activities in natural and accelerated aged seed of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Ind J Agric Sci 81(11):1037–1040Google Scholar
  70. Chen YP (2009) Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B. Plant Signal Behav 4:571–573PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Chen JJ, Mitchell DL, Britt AB (1994) A light-dependent pathway for the elimination of UV-induced pyrimidine (6–4) pyrimidinone photoproducts in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 6(9):1311–1317PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Cloix C, Jenkins GI (2008) Interaction of the Arabidopsis UV-B-specific signaling component UVR8 with chromatin. Mol Plant 1:118–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Cloix C, Kaiserli E, Heilmann M, Baxter KJ, Brown BA, O’Hara A, Smith BO, Christie JM, Jenkins GI (2012) C-terminal region of the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 initiates signaling through interaction with the COP1 protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:16366–16370PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Close DC, McArthur C (2002) Rethinking the role of many plant phenolics – protection from photodamage not herbivores? Oikos 99:166–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Cockell CS, Knowland J (1999) Ultraviolet radiation screening compounds. Biol Rev 74:311–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Cominelli E, Gussmaroli G, Allegra D, Galbiati M, Wade HK, Jenkins GI et al (2008) Expression analysis of anthocyanin regulation genes in response to different light qualities in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol 165:886–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Conklin PL, Saracco SA, Norris SR, Last RL (1996) Identification of ascorbic acid-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Genetics 154:847–856Google Scholar
  78. Corlett JE, Stephen J, Jones HG, Woodfin R, Mepsted R, Paul ND (1997) Assessing the impact of UV-B radiation on the growth and yield of field crops. In: Lumsden PJ (ed) Plants and UV-B: responses to environmental change Society for Experimental Biology, vol 64, Seminar Series. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  79. Day TA (1993) Relating UV-B radiation screening effectiveness of foliage to absorbing compound concentration and anatomical characteristics in a diverse group of plants. Oecologia 95:542–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Day TA, Vogelmann TC, De Lucia EH (1992) Are some plant life forms more effective than others in screening out ultraviolet -B radiation? Oecologia 92:513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Debaujon I, Leon-Kllosterziel MK, Koornneef M (2000) Influence of the testa on seed dormancy, germination, and longevity in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 122(2):403–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Debeaujon I, Peeters AJM, Léon-Kloosterziel KM, Koornneef M (2001) The transparent testa12 gene of Arabidopsis encodes a multidrug secondary transporter–like protein required for flavonoid sequestration in vacuoles of the seed coat endothelium. Plant Cell 13:853–872PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Deckmyn G, Impens I (1997) The ratio UV-B photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) determines the sensitivity of rye to increased UV-B radiation. Environ Exp Bot 37:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Dixon P, Weinig C, Schmitt J (2001) Susceptibility to UV damage in Impatiens capensis (Balsaminaceae): testing for opportunity costs to shade-avoidance and population differentiation. Am J Bot 88:1401–1408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Du H, Liang Y, Pei K, Ma K (2011) UV radiation-responsive proteins in rice leaves: a proteomic analysis. Plant Cell Physiol 52(2):306–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Dubest S, Gallego ME, White CI (2002) Role of the AtRad1p endonuclease in homologous recombination in plants. EMBO Rep 3:1049–1054PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Dutta TK (2009) Advantage, constrains and key success factors in establishing origin and tradition linked quality signs: the case of Darjeeling Tea, India: case study on quality products linked to geographical origin in Asia carried out for FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization, FAOGoogle Scholar
  88. Ebel J, Hahlbrock K (1982) Biosynthesis. In: Harbome J, Mabry TJ (eds) The flavonoids, advances in research. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 641–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ehmann B, Ocker B, Schidfer E (1991) Development and light-dependent regulation of the expression of two different Chalcone synthase transcripts in mustard cotyledons. Planta 183:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Elder RH, Dell’Aquila A, Mezzina M, Sarasin A, Osborne DJ (1987) DNA ligase in repair and replication in the embryos of rye, Secale cereale. Mutat Res 181:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Essen LO, Klar T (2006) Light driven DNA repair by photolyase. Cell Mol Life Sci 63:1266–1277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Falcone Ferreyra ML, Rius S, Emiliani J, Pourcel L, Feller A, Morohashi K et al (2010) Cloning and characterization of a UV-B-inducible maize flavonol synthase. Plant J 62:77–91PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fedina I, Hidema J, Velitchkova M, Georgieva K, Nedeva D (2010) UV-B induced stress responses in three rice cultivars. Biol Plant 54(3):571–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Filella I, Peñuelas J (1999) Altitudinal differences in UV absorbance, UV reflectance and related morphological traits of Quercus ilex and Rhododendron ferrugineum in the Mediterranean region. Plant Ecol 145:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Flood RG, Sinclair A (1981) Fatty acid analysis of aged permeable and impermeable seeds of Trifolium subterraneum (subterraneum clover). Seed Sci Technol 9:475–477Google Scholar
  96. Fontaine O, Billard JP, Huault C (1967) Effect of glutathione on dormancy breakage in barley seeds. Plant Growth Regul 67(1):55–58Google Scholar
  97. Frederick JE, Snell HE (1990) Tropospheric influence on solar ultraviolet radiation: the role of clouds. J Clim 3:373–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Frohnmeyer H, Staiger D (2003) Ultraviolet-B radiation-mediated responses in plants. Balancing damage and protection. Plant Physiol 133:1420–1428PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Frohnmeyer H, Loyall L, Blatt MR, Grabov A (1999) Millisecond UV-B radiation evokes prolonged elevation of cytosolic-free Ca2+ and stimulates gene expression in transgenic parsley cell cultures. Plant J 20:109–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Fuglevand G, Jackson JA, Jenkins GI (1996) UV-B, UV-A and blue light signal transduction pathways interact synergistically to regulate chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 8:2347–2357PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Fujita K, Inoue N, Yang Z, Hagiwara S, Hagiwara M (2003) Varietal differences of antioxidant activity in Tartary buckwheat flour as evaluated by chemiluminescence. Fagopyrum 20:47–52Google Scholar
  102. Ganguli S, Das G, Sen-Mandi S (1992) Plant emergence and productivity of different vigour of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Ind J Agr Sci 62(3):224–227Google Scholar
  103. Gao Q, Zhang L (2008) Ultraviolet-B-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defense system responses in ascorbate-deficient vtc1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Physiol 165:138–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gardner G, Lin C, Tobin EM, Loehrer H, Brinkman D (2009) Photobiological properties of the inhibition of etiolated Arabidopsis seedling growth by ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Cell Environ 32:1573–1583PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ghosh S, Sen Mandi S (2015) SNP in Chalcone synthase gene is associated with variation of 6-gingerol content in contrasting landraces of Zingiber officinale. Roscoe Gene 566(2):184–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gil M, Bottini R, Piccoli P, Pontin M (2010) Crosstalk between MAV and MEP pathways in vitro grape plants exposed to UV-B radiation. Biocell 35(1):A40Google Scholar
  107. Giordanoi CV, Mori T, Sala OE, Scopel AL, Caldwell MM, Ballaré CL (2003) Functional acclimation to solar UV-B radiation in Gunnera magellanica, a native plant species of southernmost Patagonia. Plant Cell Environ 26:2027–2036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Grammatikopoulos G, Petropoulou Y, Manetas Y (1999) Site dependent differences in transmittance and UV-B-absorbing capacity of isolated leaf epidermis and mesophyll in Urginea maritima (L.) Baker. J Exp Bot 50:517–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Grotewold E (2004) The challenges of moving chemicals within and out of cells: insights into the transport of plant natural products. Planta 219:906–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hahlbrock K, Scheel D (1989) Physiology and molecular biology of phenylpropanoid metabolism. Annu Rev Plant Mol Biol 40:347–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Harborne JB, Williams CA (2000) Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry 55:481–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hartmann U, Valentine WJ, Christie JM, Hays J, Jenkins GI, Weisshaar B (1998) Identification of UV/blue light-response elements in the Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase promoter using a homologous protoplast transient expression system. Plant Mol Biol 36:741–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hectors K, Prinsen E, De Coen W, Jansen MA, Guisez Y (2007) Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to low dose rates of ultraviolet B radiation show specific changes in morphology and gene expression in the absence of stress symptoms. New Phytol 175(2):255–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Heijde M, Ulm R (2012) UV-B photoreceptor-mediated signaling in plants. Trends Plant Sci 17:230–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Heijde M, Ulm R (2013) Reversion of the Arabidopsis UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 to the homodimeric ground state. PNAS 110(3):1113–1118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Herna’ndez I, Alegre L, van Breusegem F, Munne’-Bosch S (2009) How relevant are flavonoids as antioxidants in plants? Trends Plant Sci 14:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Herrmann KM, Weaver LM (1999) The shikimate pathway. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 50:473–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Hideg E, Jansen MA, Strid A (2013) UV-B exposure, ROS, and stress: inseparable companions or loosely linked associates? Trends Plant Sci 18:107–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hidema J, Kumagai T (1998) UVB-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer and photorepair with progress of growth and leaf age in rice. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 43:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hidema J, Kumagai T (2006) Sensitivity of rice to ultraviolet-B radiation. Ann Bot 97(6):933–942PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hidema J, Kumagai T, Sutherland JC, Sutherland BM (1997) Ultraviolet B–sensitive rice cultivar deficient in cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer repair. Plant Physiol 113:39–44PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hidema J, Taguchi T, Ono T, Teranishi M, Yamamoto K, Kumagai T (2007) UV-B resistance and CPD photolyase activity in rice. Plant J 50:70–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hoffman PD, Batschauer A, Hays JB (1996) PHH1, a novel gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a protein similar to plant blue-light photoreceptors and microbial photolyases. Mol Gen Genet 253:259–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Hoffmann RW, Campbell BD, Bloor SJ, Swinny EE, Markham KR, Ryan KG, Fountain DF (2003) Responses to UV-B radiation in Trifolium repens L. – physiological links to plant productivity and water availability. Plant Cell Environ 26:603–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Horowitz RM (1986) Taste effects of flavonoids. In: Cody V, Middleton E, Harbome JB (eds) Plant flavonoids in biology and medicine. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 163–175Google Scholar
  126. Hutchinson F (1987) A review of some topics concerning mutagenesis by ultraviolet light. Photochem Photobiol 45:897–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hutzler P, Fischbach R, Heller W, Jungblut TP, Reuber S, Schmitz R, Veit M, Weissenbo¨ ck G, Schnitzler JP (1998) Tissue localization of phenolic compounds in plants by confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Exp Bot 49:953–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ibdah M, Krins A, Seidlitz HK, Heller W, Strack D, Vogt T (2002) Spectral dependence of flavonol and betacyanin accumulation in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum under enhanced ultraviolet radiation. Plant Cell Environ 25:1145–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Inoue K (2011) Emerging roles of the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Trends Plant Sci 16:550–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Jacobs M, Rubery PH (1988) Naturally occurring auxin transport regulators. Science 241:346–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Janknegt JP, de Graaff CM, van de Poll WH, Visser RJW, Helbling EW, Buma AGJ (2009) Antioxidative responses of two marine microalgae during acclimation to static and fluctuating natural UV radiation. Photochem Photobiol 85:1336–1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jansen MAK (2002) Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on plants: induction of morphogenic responses. Physiol Plant 116:423–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Jansen MAK, Gaba V, Greenberg BM (1998) Higher plants and UV-B radiation: balancing damage, repair and acclimation. Trends Plant Sci 3:131–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Jansen MAK, Gaba V, Greenberg BM, Mattoo AK, Edelman M (1996) Low threshold levels of ultraviolet-B, in a background of photosynthetically active radiation trigger rapid degradation of the D2 protein of photosystem II. Plant J 9:693–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jansen MAK, Hectors K, O’Brien NM, Guisez Y, Potters G (2008) Plant stress and human health: do human consumers benefit from UV-B acclimated crops? Plant Sci 175:449–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Jansen MAK, Hideg E, Lidon FJC (2012) UV-B radiation: “When does the stressor cause stress?”. Emir J Food Agric 24(6):21–33Google Scholar
  137. Jende-Strid B (1993) Genetic control of flavonoid biosynthesis in barley. Hereditas 119:187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Jenkins GI (2009) Signal transduction in responses to UV-B radiation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 60:407–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Jetter R, Schäffer S (2001) Chemical composition of the Prunus laurocerasus leaf surface: dynamic changes of the epicuticular wax film during leaf development. Plant Physiol 126:1725–1737PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Jia X, Ren L, Chen QJ, Li R, Tang G (2009) UV-B-responsive microRNAs in Populus tremula. J Plant Physiol 166:2046–2057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Johnson CB, Kirby J, Naxakis G, Pearson S (1999) Substantial UV-B-mediated induction of essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Phytochemistry 51(4):507–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Jordan BR (1993) The molecular biology of plants exposed to ultraviolet B radiation and the interaction with other stresses. In: Jackson MB, Black CR (eds) Interacting stresses on plants in a changing climate, vol 16, NATO ASI Series. Springer, Berlin, pp 153–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Jordan BR (1996) The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plants: a molecular perspective. Adv Bot Res 22:97–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Jordan BR (2002) Molecular response of plant cells to UV-B stress. Funct Plant Biol 29:909–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kakani VG, Reddy KR, Zhao D, Mohammed AR (2003) Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) morphology and anatomy. Ann Bot 91:817–826PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kaku S, Iwaya-Inoue M, Toki K (1992) Anthocyanin influence on water proton NMR relaxation times and water contents in leaves of evergreen woody plants during the winter. Plant Cell Physiol 33:131–137Google Scholar
  147. Kalbin G, Hidema J, Brosché M, Kumagai T, Bornman JF, Strid Å (2001) UV-B-induced DNA damage and expression of defence genes under UV-B stress: tissue-specific molecular marker analysis in leaves. Plant Cell Environ 24:983–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kang H-S, Hidema J, Kumagai T (1998) Effects of light environment during culture on UV-induced cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers and their photorepair in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Photochem Photobiol 68(1):71–77Google Scholar
  149. Karousou R, Grammatikopoulos G, Lanaras T, Manetas Y, Kokkini S (1998) Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on Mentha spicata essential oil. Phytochemistry 49:2273–2277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Khoroshilova EV, Repeyev YA, Nikogosyan DN (1990) UV photolysis of aromatic amino acids and related dipeptides and tripeptides. J Photochem Photobiol 7:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kilian J, Whitehead D, Horak J, Wanke D, Weinl S, Batistic O, D’Angelo C, Bornberg-Bauer E, Kudla J, Harter K (2007) The AtGenExpress global stress expression data set: protocols, evaluation and model data analysis of UV-B light, drought and cold stress responses. Plant J 50:347–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kitamura S (2006) Transport of flavonoids: from cytosolic synthesis to vacuolar accumulation. In: Grotewold E (ed) The science of flavonoids. Springer Science, LLC, New York, pp 123–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Klein RM (1978) Plants and near-ultraviolet radiation. Bot Rev 44:1–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kliebenstein DJ, Lim JE, Landry LG, Robert L (2002) Arabidopsis UVR8 regulates ultraviolet-B signal transduction and tolerance and contains sequence similarity to human regulator of chromatin condensation I. Plant Physiol 130(1):234–243PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Koes R, Verweij W, Quattrocchio F (2005) Flavonoids: a colorful model for the regulation and evolution of biochemical pathways. Trends Plant Sci 10(5):236–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kolb CA, Laser MA, Kopecky J, Zotz G, Riederer M, Pfundel EE (2001) Effects of natural intensities of visible and UV radiation on epidermal UV-screening and photosynthesis in grape leaves (vitis vinifera cv. Silvaner). Plant Physiol 127:863–875PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kolb CA, Kpecký J, Riederer M, Pfündel EE (2003) UV screening by phenolics in berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera). Funct Plant Biol 30:1177–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Korkina LG (2007) Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defence to human health. Mol Cel Biol 53:15–25Google Scholar
  159. Kotilainen T, Tegelberg R, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Lindfors A, Aphalo PJ (2008) Metabolic specific effects of solar UV-A and UV-B on alder and birch leaf phenolics. Glob Chang Biol 14:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kotilainen T, Venäläinen T, Tegelberg R, Lindfors A, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Sutinen S, O’Hara RB, Aphalo PJ (2009) Assessment of biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings. Photochem Photobiol 85:1346–1355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kramer GF, Norman HL, Krizek DT, Mirecki RM (1991) Influence of UV-B radiation on polyamines, lipid peroxidation and membrane lipids in cucumber. Phytochemistry 30:2101–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Kramer GF, Krizek DT, Mirecki RM (1992) Influence of photosynthetically active radiation and spectral quality on UV-B induced polyamine accumulation in soybean. Phytochemistry 31:1119–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Krause GH, Galle’ A, Gademann R, Winter K (2003) Capacity of protection against ultraviolet radiation in sun and shade leaves of tropical forest plants. Funct Plant Biol 30:533–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Kravets EA, Zelena LB, Zabara EP, Blume YB (2012) Adaptation strategy of barley plants to UV-B radiation. Emir J Food Agric 24:632–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Krizek DT, Bridtz SJ, Mirecki RM (1998) Inhibitory effects of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on growth of cv. New Red Fire Lettuce Physiol Plant 103:1–7Google Scholar
  166. Krol M, Gray GR, Hurry VM, Öquist G, Malek L, Huner NPA (1995) Low-temperature stress and photoperiod affect an increased 46 tolerance to photo inhibition in Pinus banksiana seedlings. Can J Bot 73:1119–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Kubasek WL, Shirley BW, Mckillop A, Goodman HM, Briggs W, Ausubel FM (1992) Regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic genes in germinating Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Cell 4(10):1229–1236PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kunz BA, Anderson HJ, Osmond MJ, Vonarx E (2005) Components of nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Environ Mol Mutagen 45:115–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lam RYY, Woo AYH, Leung PS, Cheng CHK (2007) Antioxidant actions of phenolic compounds found in dietary plants on low-density lipoprotein and erythrocytes in vitro. J Am Coll Nutr 26(3):233–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Landry LG, Chapple CCS, Last RL (1995) Arabidopsis mutants lacking phenolic sunscreens exhibit enhanced ultraviolet-B injury and oxidative damage. Plant Physiol 109(4):1159–1166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Landry LG, Stapleton AE, Lim J, Hoffman P, Hays JB, Walbot V, Last RL (1997) An Arabidopsis photolyase mutant is hypersensitive to ultraviolet-B radiation, of special interest. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:328–332PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Larson RA (1988) The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry 27:969–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lazar G, Goodman HM (2006) MAX1, a regulator of flavonoid pathway, controls vegetative bud outgrowth in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:472–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Lee DW, Lowry JB, Stone BC (1978) Abaxial anthocyanin layer in leaves of tropical rainforest plants: enhancer of light capture in deep shade. Biotropica 11:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lee DW, Brammeier S, Smith AP (1987) The selective advantages of anthocyanins in developing leaves of mango and cacao. Biotropica 19:40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lercari B, Sodi F, Lipucci di Paola M (1990) Photomorphogenic responses to UV radiation: involvement of phytochrome and UV photoreceptors in the control of hypocotyl elongation in Lycopersicon esculentum. Physiol Plant 79:668–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Lewinsohn E, Britsch L, Mazur Y, Gressel J (1989) Flavanone glycoside biosynthesis in Citrus: chalcone synthase, UDP-glucose:flavanone-7-O-glucosyl-transferase and rhamnosyltransferase activities in cell-free extracts. Plant Physiol 91:1323–1328PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Li J, Ou-Lee T, Raba R, Amundson RG, Last RL (1993) Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants are hypersensitive to UV-B radiation. Plant Cell 5:171–179PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Liu L, Gitz DC, McClure JW (1995) Effects of UV-B on flavonoids, ferulic acid, growth and photosynthesis in barley primary leaves. Physiol Plant 93:725–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Liu Z, Hossain GS, Islas-Osuna MA, Mitchell DL, Mount DW (2000) Repair of UV damage in plants by nucleotide excision repair: Arabidopsis UVH1 DNA repair gene is a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1. Plant J 21:519–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Lizana C, Wentworth M, Martinez JP et al (2006) Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress. I. Effects of drought on yield and photosynthesis. J Exp Bot 57:685–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lyddon J, Teramura AH, Coffman CB (1987) UV-B radiation effects on photosynthesis, growth and cannabinoid production of two Cannabis sativa chemotypes. Photochem Photobiol 46:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mackerness SAH (2000) Plant response to ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 280–320) stress: what are the key regulators? Plant Growth Regul 32:27–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mackerness AHS, Surplus SL, Blake P, John CF, Buchana-Wollaston V, Jordan BR, Thomas B (1999) Ultraviolet-B-induced stress and changes in gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana: role of signaling pathways controlled by jasmonic acid, ethylene and reactive oxygen species. Plant Cell Environ 22:1413–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Madronich S, de Gruijl FR (1994) Stratospheric ozone depletion between 1979 and 1992: implications for biologically active ultraviolet-B radiation and non-melanoma skin cancer incidence. Photochem Photobiol 59:541–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Madronich S, McKenzie RL, Caldwell MM, Bjorn LO (1995) Changes in ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Ambio 24:143–152Google Scholar
  187. Maffei M, Scannerini S (2000) UV-B effect on photomorphogenesis and essential oil composition in peppermint (Mentha piperita L). J Essent Oil Res 12(5):523–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Markham KR, Tanner GJ, Caasi-Lit M, Whitecross MI, Nayudu M, Mitchell KA (1998) Possible protective role for 3′,4′-dihydroxyflavones induced by enhanced UV-B in a UV-tolerant rice cultivar. Phytochemistry 49:1913–1919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Marksta¨dter C, Queck I, Baumeister J, Riederer M, Schreiber U, Bilger W (2001) Epidermal transmittance of leaves of Vicia faba for UV radiation as determined by two different methods. Photosynth Res 67:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Martinez-Luscher J, Morales F, Delrot S, Sanchez-Diaz M, Gomes E, Aguirreolea J et al (2013) Short- and long-term physiological responses of grapevine leaves to UV-B radiation. Plant Sci 213:114–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Mazza CA, Boccalandro HE, Giordano CV, Battista D, Scopel AL, Ballare’ CL (2000) Functional significance and induction by solar radiation of ultraviolet-absorbing sunscreens in field-grown soybean crops. Plant Physiol 122:117–125PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. McIntosh CA, Latchinian L, Mansell RL (1990) Flavanone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase activity in Citrus paradisi seedlings: purification and characterization. Arch Biochem Biophys 282:50–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mewis I, Schreiner M, Nguyen CN, Krumbein A, Ulrichs C, Lohse M, Zrenner R (2012) UV-B radiation changes specifically the secondary metabolite profile in broccoli sprouts: induced signaling overlaps with defense response to biotic stressors. Plant Cell Physiol 53(9):1546–1560PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Middleton E (1984) The flavonoids. Trends Pharmacol Sci 5:335–338Google Scholar
  195. Middleton Jr (1998) Effect of plant flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell function. Adv Exp Med Biol 439:175–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Middleton EM, Teramura AH (1993) The role of flavonol glycosides and carotenoids in protecting soybean from ultraviolet-B damage. Plant Physiol 103:741–752PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Mirecki RM, Teramura AH (1984) Effects of ultraviolet-B irradiance on soybean. The dependence of plant sensitivity on the photosynthetic photon flux density during and after leaf expansion. Plant Physiol 74:475–480PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Moellering ER, Muthan B, Benning C (2010) Freezing tolerance in plants requires lipid remodeling at the outer chloroplast membrane. Science 330:226–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Moldau H (1999) Ozone detoxification in the mesophyll cell wall during a stimulated oxidative burst. Free Radic Res 31:S19–S44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Molinier J, Lechner E, Dumbliauskas E, Genschik P (2008) Regulation and role of Arabidopsis CUL4-DDB1A-DDB2 in maintaining genome integrity upon UV stress. PLoS Genet 4:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Morales LO, Tegelberg R, Brosché M, Keinänen M, Lindfors A, Aphalo PJ (2010) Effects of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on gene expression and phenolic accumulation in Betula pendula leaves. Tree Physiol 30:923–934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Morales LO, Tegelberg R, Brosché M, Lindfors A, Siipola S, Aphalo PJ (2011) Temporal variation in epidermal flavonoids due to altered solar UV radiation is moderated by the leaf position in Betula pendula. Physiol Plant 143:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Mpoloka SW (2008) Effects of prolonged UV-B exposure in plants. Afr J Biotechnol 7(25):4874–4883Google Scholar
  204. Mpoloka SW (2010) Residual effects of prolonged UV-B exposure on photosynthetic gene expression. Sci Res Essay 5(16):2119–2127Google Scholar
  205. Müller-Xing R, Xing Q, Goodrich J (2014) Footprints of the sun: memory of UV and light stress in plants. Front Plant Sci 5:474PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Mullineaux PM, Karpinski S (2002) Signal transduction in response to excess light: getting out of the chloroplast. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:43–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Nakajima S, Sugiyama M, Iwai S, Hitomi K, Otoshi E, Kim S-T, Jiang C-Z, Todo T, Britt AB, Yamamoto K (1998) Cloning and characterization of a gene (UVR3) required for photorepair of 6–4 photoproducts in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucl Acids Res 26(2):638–644PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Nawkar GM, Maibam P, Park JH, Sahi VP, Lee SY, Kang CH (2013) UV-induced cell death in plants. Int J Mol Sci 14(1):1608–1628PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Nikolopoulos D, Petropoulou Y, Kyparissis A, Manetas Y (1995) Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the drought semideciduous Mediterranean shrub Phlomis fruticosa under field conditions are season-specific. Aust J Plant Physiol 22:737–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Olsson LC, Veit M, Weissenböck G, Bornman JF (1998) Differential flavonoid response to enhanced UV-B-radiation in Brassica napus. Phytochemistry 49:1021–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Olsson LC, Veit M, Bornman JF (1999) Epidermal transmittance and phenolic composition of atrazine-tolerant and atrazine-sensitive cultivars of Brassica napus grown under enhanced UV-B radiation. Physiol Plant 107:259–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Panagopoulos I, Bornman F, Björn LO (1990) Effect of ultraviolet radiation and visible light on growth, fluorescence induction, ultra weak luminescence and peroxidase activity in sugar beet plants. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 8:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Pattison DI, Davies MJ (2006) Action of ultraviolet light on cellular structures. In: Bignold LP (ed) Cancer: cell structures, carcinogens and genomic instability. Birkhäuser, Virlag, BaselGoogle Scholar
  214. Peer WA, Murphy AS (2007) Flavonoids and auxin transport: modulators or regulators? Trends Plant Sci 12:556–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Peer WA, Bandyopadhyay A, Blakeslee JJ, Makam SN, Chen R, Mason P, Murphy A (2004) Variation in expression and protein localization of the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitator proteins in flavonoid mutants with altered auxin transport in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell 16:898–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Perkins MC, Roberts CJ, Briggs D, Davies MC, Friedmann A, Hart CA, Bell GA (2005) Surface morphology and chemistry of Prunus laurocerasus L. leaves: a study using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, atomic-force microscopy and scanning-electron icroscopy. Planta 221:123–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Piao X-M, Chung J-W, Lee G-A, Jung-Ro Lee J-R et al (2014) Variation in antioxidant activity and flavonoid aglycones in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) germplasm. Plant Breed Biotechnol 2:396–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Piazza P, Procissi A, Jenkins IG, Tonelli C (2002) Members of the C1/pl1 regulatory gene family mediate the response of maize aleurone and mesocotyl to different light qualities and cytokinins. Plant Physiol 128:1077–1086PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Pollastri S, Tattini M (2011) Flavonols: old compound for old roles. Ann Bot 108:1225–1233PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Polle A, Rennenberg H (1992) Field studies on Norway spruce trees at high altitudes: II. Defence system against oxidative stress in needles. New Phytol 121:635–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Polster J, Dithmar H, Burgemeister R, Friedemann G, Feucht W (2006) Flavonoids in plant nuclei: detection by laser microdissection and pressure catapulting (LMPC), in vivo staining, and UV-visible spectroscopic titration. Physiol Plant 126:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Pontin MA, Piccoli PN, Francisco R, Bottini R, Martinez-Zapater JM, Lijavetzky D (2010) Transcriptome changes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Malbec leaves induced by ultraviolet-B radiation. BMC Plant Biol 10:224PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Prakash D, Upadhyay G, Singh BN, Singh HB (2007) Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of seeds and agri-wastes of some varieties of soybean (Glycine max). Food Chem 102(4):783–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Quail PH (2002) Phytochrome photosensory signalling networks. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:85–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Rastogi RP, Richa KA, Tyagi MB, Sinha RP (2010) Molecular mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and repair. J Nucleic Acids 56:1–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Rausher MD (2006) The evolution of flavonoids and their genes. In: Grotewold E (ed) The science of flavonoids. Springer, New York, pp 175–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Rautenberger R, Wiencke C, Bischof K (2013) Acclimation to UV radiation and antioxidative defence in the endemic Antarctic brown macroalga Desmarestia anceps along a depth gradient. Polar Biol 36:1779–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Renger G, Vo¨lker M, Eckert HJ, Fromme R, Hohm-Veit S, Gra¨ber P (1989) On the mechanism of photosystem II deterioration by UV-B radiation. Photochem Photobiol 49:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Reuber S, Bornman JF, Weissenbo¨ck G (1996) A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf. Plant Cell Environ 19:593–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20(7):933–956PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Papanga G (1997) Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 2:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Ries G, Buchholz G, Frohnmeyer H, Hohn B (2000a) UV-damage-mediated induction of homologous recombination in Arabidopsis is dependent on photosynthetically active radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13425–13429PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Ries G, Heller W, Puchta H, Sandermann H, Seidlitz HK, Hohn B (2000b) Elevated UV-B radiation reduces genome stability in plants. Nature 406:98–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Rizzini L, Favory J-J, Cloix C, Faggionato D, O’Hara A, Kaiserli E, Baumeister R, Schäfer E, Nagy F, Jenkins GI, Ulm R (2011) Perception of UV-B by the Arabidopsis UVR8 protein. Science 332:103–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Robberecht R, Caldwell MM (1982b) Leaf epidermal transmittance of ultraviolet radiation and its implication for plant sensitivity to ultraviolet-radiation induced injury. Oecologia 32:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Robberecht R, Caldwell MM, Billings WD (1980) Leaf ultraviolet optical properties along a latitudinal gradient in the arctic-alpine life zone. Ecology 61:612–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Roleda MY, Wiencke C, Hanelt D (2006a) Thallus morphology and optical characteristics affect growth and DNA damage by UV radiation in juvenile Arctic Laminaria sporophytes. Planta 223:407–417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Roleda MY, Hanelt D, Wiencke C (2006b) Growth and DNA damage in young Laminaria sporophytes exposed to ultraviolet radiation implication for depth zonation of kelps on Helgoland (North Sea). Mar Biol 148:1201–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Rousseaux MC, Ballare CL, Scopel AL, Searles PS, Caldwell MM (1998) Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects plant–insect interactions in a natural ecosystem of Tierra del Fuego. Oecologia 116:528–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Rozema J, Chardonnens A, Tosserams M, Hafkenscheid R, Bruijnzeel S (1997) Leaf thickness, and UV-B absorbing pigments of plants in relation to an elevational gradient along the Blue Mountains. Jamaica Plant Ecol 128:150–159Google Scholar
  241. Rozema J, Bjorn OL, Bornman JF et al (2002) The role of UV-B radiation in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems – an experimental and functional analysis of the evolution of UV-B absorbing compounds. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 66:2–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Ruhland CT, Xiong FS, Clark WD, Day TA (2005) The influence of ultraviolet-B radiation on hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and growth of Deschampsia antarctica during the springtime ozone depletion season in Antarctica. Photochem Photobiol 81:1086–1093PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Ryan KG, Markham KR, Bloor SJ, Bradley JM, Mitchell KA, Jordan BR (1998) UV-B radiation induces increase in quercetin: kaempferol ratio in wild-type and transgenic lines of Petunia. Photochem Photobiol 68:323–330Google Scholar
  244. Ryan KG, Swinny EE, Winefield C, Markham KR (2001) Flavonoids and UV photoprotection in Arabidopsis mutants. Z Naturforsch C 56:745–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Ryan KG, Swinny EE, Markham KR, Winefield C (2002) Flavonoid gene expression and UV photoprotection in transgenic and mutant Petunia leaves. Phytochemistry 59:23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Sáfrány J, Haasz V, Máté Z, Ciolfi A, Fehér B, Oravecz A, Stec A, Dallmann G, Morelli G, Ulm R, Nagy F (2008) Identification of a novel cis-regulatory element for UV-B induced transcription in Arabidopsis. Plant J 54:402–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Sancar A (1994) Structure and function of DNA photolyase. Biochemistry 33(1):2–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Saslowsky DE, Warek U, Winjel BSJ (2005) Nuclear localization of flavonoid enzymes in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem 280:23735–23740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Schmelzer E, Jahnen W, Hahlbrock K (1988) In situ localisation of light induced chalcone synthase mRNA, chalcone synthase, and flavonoid end products in epidermal cells of parsley leaves. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:2989–2993PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Schmitz-Hoerner R, Weissenböck G (2003) Contribution of phenolic compounds to the UV-B screening capacity of developing barley primary leaves in relation to DNA damage and repair under elevated UV-B levels. Phytochemistry 64:243–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Schnitzler HP, Junglubt TP, Heller W, Kofferlein K, Hutzler P, Heinzmann U, Schmelzer E, Ernst D, Langebartels C, Sandermann H Jr (1996) Tissue localization of UV-B screening pigments and chalcone synthase mRNA in needles of Scots pine seedlings. New Phytol 132:247–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Schweikert K, Sutherland JES, Hurd CL, Burritt DJ (2011) UV-B radiation induces changes in polyamine metabolism in the red seaweed Porphyra cinnamomea. Plant Growth Regul 65(2):389–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Sharma R (2001) Impact of solar UV-B on tropical ecosystems and agriculture. Case study: effect of UV-B on rice. Proc SEAWPIT98 SEAWPIT2000 1:92–101Google Scholar
  254. Sheahan JJ (1996) Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot 83:679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Shinkle JR, Edwards MC, Koenig A, Shaltz A, Barnes PW (2010) Photomorphogenic regulation of increases in UV-absorbing pigments in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings induced by different UV-B and UV-C wavebands. Physiol Plant 138:113–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Shirley BW (1996) Flavonoid biosynthesis: ‘new’ functions for an old pathway. Trends Plant Sci 1:377–382Google Scholar
  257. Shyam Choudhury S, Sen Mandi S (2011) Natural ultra violet irradiance related variation in antioxidant and aroma compounds in tea (Camelia sinensis L. Kuntze) plants grown in two different altitudes. Int J Environ Biol 2(1):1–6Google Scholar
  258. Shyam Choudhury S, Sen Mandi S (2012) Natural ultra violet radiation on field grown rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants confer protection against oxidative stress in seed during storage under subtropical ambience. Environ Pollut 1:2Google Scholar
  259. Sichel G, Corsaro C, Scalia M, di Bilio AJ, Bonomo RP (1991) In vitro scavenger activity of some flavonoids and melanins against O2−. Free Radic Biol Med 11:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Singh R, Singh S, Tripathi R, Agrawal SB (2011) Supplemental UV-B radiation induced changes in growth, pigments and antioxidant pool of bean (Dolichos lablab) under field conditions. J Environ Biol 32:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Solovchenko A (2010) Photoprotection in plants, vol 14, Springer Series in Biophysics. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–168Google Scholar
  262. Stafford HA (1990) Flavonoid metabolism. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  263. Stafford HA (1991) Flavonoid evolution: an enzymic approach. Plant Phys 96:680–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Stapleton AE, Walbot V (1994) Flavonoids can protect maize DNA from the induction of ultraviolet-radiation damage. Plant Physiol 105:881–889PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Stephanou M, Manetas Y (1997) The effects of seasons, exposure, enhanced UV-B radiation and water stress on leaf epicuticular and internal UV-B absorbing capacity of Cistus creticus: a Mediterra-nean field study. J Exp Bot 48:1977–1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Strack D, Meurer B, Weissenböck G (1982) Tissue-specific kinetics of flavonoid accumulation in primary leaves of rye (Secale cereale L.). Z Pflanzenphysiol 108:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Strack D, Heilemann J, Mo¨mken M, Wray V (1988) Cell wall-conjugated phenolics from Coniferae leaves. Phytochemistry 27:3517–3521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Stracke R, Favory JJ, Gruber H, Bartelniewoehner L, Bartels S, Binkert M, Funk M, Weisshaar B, Ulm R (2010) The Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factor HY5 regulates expression of the PFG1/MYB12 gene in response to light and ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Cell Environ 33:88–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Strid A, Chow WS, Anderson JM (1994) UV-B damage and protection at the molecular level in plants. Photosynth Res 39:475–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Surplus SL, Jordan BR, Murphy AM, Carr JP, Thomas B, Mackerness SA-H (1998) UV-B induced response in Arabidopsis thaliana: role of salicylic acid and ROS in the regulation of transcripts and acidic PR proteins. Plant Cell Environ 21:685–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Takahashi A, Takeda K, Ohnishi T (1991) Light-induced anthocyanin reduces the extent of damage to DNA in UV-irradiated Centaurea cyanus cells in culture. Plant Cell Physiol 32:541Google Scholar
  272. Tarrant AM, Reitzel AM, Kwok CK, Jenny MJ (2014) Activation of the cnidarian oxidative stress response by ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic 3 hydrocarbons and crude oil. J Exp Biol 217:1444–1453PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Tattini M, Gravano E, Pinelli P, Mulinacci N, Romani A (2000) Flavonoids accumulate in leaves and glandular trichomes of Phillyrea latifolia exposed to excess solar radiation. New Phytol 148:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Tattini M, Galardi C, Pinelli P, Massai R, Remorini D, Agati G (2004) Differential accumulation of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates in leaves of Ligustrum vulgare under excess light and drought stress. New Phytol 163:547–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Taylor LP, Grotewold E (2005) Flavonoids as developmental regulators. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:317–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Teramura AH (1983) Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of crop plants. Physiol Plant 58:415–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Tevini M (1994) UV-B effects on terrestrial plants and aquatic organisms. Prog Bot 55:174–190Google Scholar
  278. Tevini M, Teramura AH (1989) UV-B effects on terrestrial plants. Photochem Photobiol 50:479–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Tevini M, Braun J, Fieser G (1991) The protective function of the epidermal layer of rye seedlings against ultraviolet- B radiation. Photochem Photobiol 533:29–333Google Scholar
  280. Torabinejad J, Caldwell MM (2000) Inheritance of UV-B tolerance in seven ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh. and their F1 hybrids. J Hered 91:228–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Tournaire C, Croux S, Maurette M-T, Beck I, Hocquaux M, Oliveros E, Braun AM (1993) Antioxidant activity of flavonoids: efficiency of singlet oxygen (1Δg) quenching. J Photochem Photobiol B 19:205–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Tsormpatsidis E, Henbest RGC, Davis FJ, Battey NH, Hadley P, Wagstaffe A (2007) UV irradiance as a major inûuence on growth, development and secondary products of commercial importance in LolloRosso lettuce ‘Revolution’ grown under polyethylene ûlms. Environ Exp Bot 63:232–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Tsormpatsidis E, Henbest RGC, Battey NH, Hadley P (2010) The influence of ultraviolet radiation on growth, photosynthesis and phenolic levels of green and red lettuce: potential for exploiting effects of ultraviolet radiation in a production system. Ann Appl Biol 156(3):357–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Tzin V, Galili G (2010) The biosynthetic pathways for shikimate and aromatic amino acids in Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis Book 8:e0132. doi: 10.1199/tab.0132 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Ulm R, Nagy F (2005) Signalling and gene regulation in response to UV light. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:477–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Ulm R, Baumann A, Oravecz A, Mate Z, Adam E, Oakeley J, Schafer E, Nagy F (2004) Genome-wide analysis of gene expression reveals HY5 function in the UV-B response of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:1397–1402PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1995) Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1995 assessmentGoogle Scholar
  288. Vierstra RD, John TR, Poff KI (1982) Kaempferol 3-O-galactoside 7-O-rhamnoside is the major green fluorescing compound in the epidermis of Vicia faba. Plant Physiol 69:522–525PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Vispe S, Cazaux C, Lesca C, Defais M (1998) Overexpression of Rad51 protein stimulates homologous recombination and increases resistance of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation. Nucl Acids Res 26:2859–2864PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Vogelmann TC (1993) Plant tissue optics. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:231–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Vogt T (2010) Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Mol Plant 3:2–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Wang Y, He W, Huang H, An L, Wang D, Zhang F (2009) Antioxidative responses to different altitudes in leaves of alpine plant Polygonum viviparum in summer. Acta Physiol Plant 31:839–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. War AR, Paulraj MG, Ahmad T, Buhroo AA, Hussain B, Ignacimuthu S, Sharma HC (2012) Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores. Plant Signal Behav 7(10):1306–1320PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Warner CW, Caldwell MM (1983) Influence of photon flux density in the 400–700 nm waveband of inhibition of photosynthesis by UV-B (280–320 nm) radiation in soybean leaves: separation of indirect and immediate effects. Photochem Photobiol 38:341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Waterworth WM, Jiang Q, West CE, Nikaido M, Bray CM (2002) Characterization of Arabidopsis photolyase enzymes and analysis of their role in protection from ultraviolet-B radiation. J Exp Bot 53:1005–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Weinig C, Gravuer KA, Kane NC, Schmitt J (2004) Testing adaptive plasticity to UV: costs and benefits of stem elongation and light-induced phenolics. Evolution 58:2645–2656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. White AL, Jhanke LS (2002) Contrasting effects of UV-A and UV-B on photosynthesis and photoprotection of β-carotene in two Dunaliella spp. Plant Cell Physiol 43(8):877–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wilson MI, Greenberg BM (1993) Specificity and photomorphogenic nature of ultraviolet-B-induced cotyledon curling in Brassica napus L. Plant Physiol 102:671–677PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Wilson DO, McDonald MB Jr (1986a) A convenient volatile aldehyde assay for measuring seed vigour. Seed Sci Technol 14:259–268Google Scholar
  300. Wilson DO Jr, McDonald MB Jr (1986b) The lipid peroxidation model of seed aging. Seed Sci Technol 18:269–300Google Scholar
  301. Wilson KE, Wilson MI, Greenberg BM (1998) Identification of the flavonoid glycosides that accumulate in Brassica napus L. cv. Topas specifically in response to ultraviolet-B radiation. Photochem Photobiol 67:547–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Wilson KE, Thompson JE, Huner NPA, Greenberg BM (2001) Effects of ultraviolet-A exposure on ultraviolet-B-induced accumulation of specific flavonoids in Brassica napus. Photochem Photobiol 73:678–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Wolf L, Rizzini L, Stracke R, Ulm R, Rensing SA (2010) The molecular and physiological responses of Physcomitrella patens to ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Physiol 153:1123–1134PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Wondrak GT, Jacobson MK, Jacobson EL (2006) Endogenous UV-A-photosensitizers: mediators of skin photodamage and novel targets for skin photoprotection. Photochem Photobiol Sci 5:215–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Yamasaki H, Sakihama Y, Ikehara N (1997) Flavonoid–peroxidase reaction as a detoxification mechanism of plant cells against H2O2. Plant Physiol 115:1405–1417PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J et al (2004) Flavonoids in food and their health benefits. Plant Food Hum Nutr 59(3):113–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Zhang WJ, Bjo¨rn LO (2009) The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the accumulation of medicinal compounds in plants. Fitoterapia 80(4):207–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Zhao J, Dixon R (2009) The ‘ins’ and ‘outs’ of flavonoid transport. Trends Plant Sci 15:72–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Zhao B, Liang R, Ge L, Li W, Xiao H, Lin H, Ruan K, Jin Y (2007) Identification of drought-induced microRNAs in rice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 354:585–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer (India) Pvt. Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swati Sen Mandi
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant BiologyBose InstituteKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations