Conclusion and Future Prospects
The uterus is the largest female reproductive organ that plays an integral role in implantation and in absence of pregnancy, menstruation. Human endometrium, lining the uterine cavity, is a simple columnar epithelium that exhibits dramatic cyclical changes during each menstrual cycle. Studies on therapeutic applications of these endometrial stem cells in treating various disorders at both pre-clinical and clinical settings are gaining consensus in recent years. This is due to its high vasculature, extensive proliferation coupled with inherent role of angiogenesis in the reproductive process such as embryo implantation and endometrial regeneration after menstruation. However, endometrial stem cells are a “double-edged sword.” It has both therapeutic implication and establishes itself likely to cause diseases due to dysregulatory mechanism. Thus, first three chapters of the brief summarized the angelic property, that is, the potential in vitro and in vivo applications of endometrial stem cells, and the last chapter summarizes the demonic property of endometrial stem cells, which is an important aspect of uterine stem cell biology. This is because recent studies have proven that abnormal proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stem cells are responsible for the dysregulated endometrial mechanism. Especially, the major concerns of endometrial disorders include endometriosis, endometrial hyperplasia, and endometrial carcinoma.