Advertisement

Onion

  • N. K. Srinivasa Rao
Chapter

Abstract

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is among the most important horticultural crops grown worldwide for its culinary preparations. The onion is the second most widely cultivated horticultural crop in the world. Limited water availability, increasing temperature, salinity and flooding are the major environmental factors in sustaining and increasing the productivity of onion worldwide. In onion, water is the main limiting factor for low productivity. Onions are considered a shallow-rooted crop and are more sensitive to water stress during bulb formation and enlargement than during the vegetative stage. In rainy season, the production of vegetables is often limited due to excessive moisture brought about by heavy rains. Temperature limits the range and production. Day length and temperature influence bulb formation in onions. Onions are sensitive to salt, are relative excluders of both Na and Cl and are sensitive to sulphate. Physiologically, excessive soil salinity imposes initial water deficit that results from the relatively high solute concentrations in the soil, causes ion-specific pores resulting from altered K+/Na+ ratio and leads to a build-up in Na+ and Cl concentrations that are detrimental to plants. Understanding the physiological, molecular and biochemical processes in relation to these changing climatic factors including increasing CO2 constitutes the first step toward the development of strategies for designing stress-resistant genotypes of onion. Effects of environmental factors- water, temperature salinity and elevated CO2 on whole plant physiology of onion crops as expressed by growth, yield, quality and photosynthetic features are discussed.

Keywords

Leaf Area Water Stress Drip Irrigation Deficit Irrigation Water Stress Condition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abdalla AA (1967) Effect of temperature and photoperiod on bulbing of common onion (Allium cepa L.) under arid tropical conditions of the Sudan. Exp Agric 3:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Jammal MS, Sammis TW, Ball S, Smeal D (2000) Computing the water production function for onion. Agric Water Manag 46:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagali AN, Agali HB, Patil MB, Guled, Patil RV (2012) Effect of scheduling of drip irrigation on growth, yield and water use efficiency of onion (Allium cepa L.). Karnataka J Agric Sci 25(1):116–119Google Scholar
  4. Barroso CM, Franke LB, Barroso IB (2010) Substrato e luz na germinação das sementes de rainha-do-abismo. Hortic Bras 28:236–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernstein L, Ayers AD (1953) Salt tolerance of five varieties of onions. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 62:367–370Google Scholar
  6. Bhatt RM, Srinivasa Rao NK, Veere Gowda R (2006) Response of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) to water stress: photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and osmotic adjustment. Indian J Hortic 63(3):20–25Google Scholar
  7. Brewster JL (1979) The response of growth rate to temperature in seedlings of several Allium crop species. Ann Appl Biol 93:351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brewster JL (1994) Onions and other vegetable alliums. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  9. Butt AM (1968) Vegetative growth, morphogenesis and carbohydrate content of the onion plant as a function of light and temperature under field and controlled conditions. Meded Landbouwhogeschool Wagening Ned 68:29Google Scholar
  10. Carvalho LC, Kazama EH (2011) Efeito da salinidade de cloreto de potássio (KCL) na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.). Enciclopédia Biosfera Cent Científico Conhecer Goiânia 7(13):429–435Google Scholar
  11. Currah L (1985) Review of three onion improvement schemes in the tropics. Trop Agric 62:131–136Google Scholar
  12. Daymond AJ, Wheeler TR, Hadley P, Ellis RH, Morison JI (1997) Effects of temperature, CO2 and their interaction on the growth, development and yield of two varieties of onion (Allium cepa L.). J Hortic Sci 72:135–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. De Ruiter JM (1986) The effect of temperature and photoperiod on onion bulb growth and development. P Agron Soc NZ 16:93–100Google Scholar
  14. Deuner C, Maia MS, Deuner S, Almeida A, Meneghello GE (2011) Viabilidade e atividade antioxidante de sementes de genótipos de feijão-miúdo submetidos ao estresse salino. Rev Bras Sementes 33(4):711–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doorenbos J, Kassam AH (1986) Yield response to water. FAO Irrig. and Drain, Paper 33. Rome, pp 193Google Scholar
  16. dos Santos PR, Ruiz HA, Neves JCL, de Almeida EF, Freire MBGS, Freire FJ (2009) Germinacao, vigor e crescimento de cultivares de feijoeiro em solucoes salinas. Rev Brasil Engen Agríc Ambient 13:882–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dragland S (1974) Nitrogen and water requirements in onions. Forskning Forsok Landbruket 26:93–113Google Scholar
  18. Ells JE, McSay AE, Soltanpour PN, Schweissing FC, Bartolo ME, Kruse EG (1993) Onion irrigation and nitrogen leaching in the Arkansas Valley of Colorado. Hortic Tech 3(2):184–187Google Scholar
  19. FAO (2013) Crop water information: onion. Available online with updates at http://www.fao.org/nr/water/crop info_onions.html
  20. Hegde DM (1986) Effect of irrigation regimes on dry matter production, yield, nutrient uptake and water use of onion. Indian J Agron 31:343–348Google Scholar
  21. Jones ST, Johnson WA (1958) Effect of irrigation at different minimum levels of soil moisture and of imposed drought on yield of onions and potatoes. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 71:440–445Google Scholar
  22. Kadayifci A, Tuylu GI, Ucar Y, Cakmak B (2005) Crop water use of onion (Allium cepa L.) in Turkey. Agric Water Manag 72:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kader MA, Lindberg S (2010) Cytosolic calcium and pH signaling in plants under salinity stress. Plant Signal Behav 5:233–238CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Koriem SO, El-Koliey MMA, Wahba MF (1994) Onion bulb production from “Shandwell 1” sets as affected by soil moisture stress. Assiut J Agric Sci 25:185–193Google Scholar
  25. Lima MDB, Bull LT (2008) Produção de cebola em solo salinizado. Rev Brasil Engen Agrí Ambi 12:231–235Google Scholar
  26. Long SP (1991) Modification of the response of photosynthetic productivity to rising temperature by atmospheric CO2 concentrations: has its importance been underestimated? Plant Cell Environ 14:729–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mafakheri A, Siosemardeh A, Bahramnejad B, Struik PC, Sohrabi Y (2010) Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Aust J Crop Sci 4(8):580–585Google Scholar
  28. Maia JM, Ferreira-Silva SL, Voigt EL, de Macedo CEC, Ponte LFA, Silveira JAG (2012) Atividade de enzimas antioxidantes e inibição do crescimento radicular de feijão caupi sob diferentes níveis de salinidade. Acta Bot Bras 26:342–349Google Scholar
  29. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59(651):681Google Scholar
  30. Pasternak D, De Malach Y, Borovic I (1984) Irrigation with brackish water under desert conditions I. Problems and solutions in production of onions (Allium cepa L.). Agric Water Manag 9:225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Patel N, Rajput TBS (2013) Effect of deficit irrigation on crop growth, yield and quality of onion in subsurface drip irrigation. Int J Plant Prod 7(3):1735–6814Google Scholar
  32. Pathak CS (2000) Hybrid seed production in onion. J New Seeds 1:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pompeu GB, Gratão PL, Vitorello VA, Azevedo RA (2008) Antioxidant isoenzyme responses to nickel-induced stress in tobacco cell suspension culture. Sci Agríc 65:548–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quadir M, Boulton A, Ekman J, Hickey M, Hoogers R (2005) Influence of drip irrigation on onion yield and quality, vol 170. IREC Farmers’ Newsletter, Australia, pp 29–31Google Scholar
  35. Rabinowitch HD, Currah L (2002) Allium crop science: recent advances. CAB International, Wallington, p 551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rana DS, Sharma RP (1994) Effect of irrigation regime and nitrogen fertilization on bulb yield and water use of onion (Allium cepa L). Indian J Agric Sci 64:223–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robinson JC (1973) Studies on the performance and growth of various short-day onion varieties (Allium cepa L.) in the Rhodesian Lowveld in relation to sowing. 1. Growth analysis. Rhod J Agric Res 11:51–68Google Scholar
  38. Ryang S, Woo S, Kwon S, Kim S, Lee SH, Kim K, Lee D (2009) Changes of net photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and antioxidant contents of Liriodendron tulipifera under elevated ozone. Photosynthetica 47:19–25Google Scholar
  39. Seabrook JEA (2005) Light effects on the growth and morphogenesis of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in vitro: a review. Am J Potato Res 82:353–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shock CC, Feibert EBG, Saunders LD (1998) Onion yield and quality affected by soil water potential as irrigation threshold. Hortic Sci 33:188–191Google Scholar
  41. Shock CC, Feibert EBG, Saunders LD (2000a) Irrigation criteria for drip irrigated onions. Hortic Sci 35:63–66Google Scholar
  42. Shock CC, Feibert EBG, Saunders LD (2000b) Onion storage decomposition unaffected by late-season irrigation reduction. HortTechnology 10:176–178Google Scholar
  43. Shock CC, Feibert EBG, Saunders LD (2007) Short-duration water stress decreases onion single centers without causing translucent scale. Hortic Sci 42(6):1450–1455Google Scholar
  44. Silva RN, Lopes NF, Moraes DM, Pereira AL, Duarte GL (2007) Physiological quality of barley seeds submitted to saline stress. Rev Brasil Sementes 29:40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singh R, Alderfer RB (1966) Effects of soil moisture stress at different periods of growth of some vegetable crops. Soil Sci 101(1):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sørensen JN, Grevsen K (2001) Sprouting in bulb onions (Allium cepa L.) as influenced by nitrogen and water stress. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 76:501–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Srinivasa Rao NK (2014) Response of onion to temperature gradient on growth and biomass. In: final report of ICAR Emeritus Scientist Project Impact of Climate change and Climate Variability on Onion Productivity, Production and Quality, pp 18–23Google Scholar
  48. Srinivasa Rao NK, Laxman RH, Bhatt RM (2009) Impact of elevated carbon dioxide on growth and yield of onion and tomato. In: Aggarwal PK (ed) Global climate change and Indian Agriculture. ICAR, New Delhi, pp 35–37Google Scholar
  49. Srinivasa Rao NK, Laxman RH, Bhatt RM (2010) Extent of impact of flooding and water stress on growth and yield of onion and tomato. In: Aggarwal PK (ed) Annual progress report of ICAR network project impact, adaptation and vulnerability of Indian Agriculture to climate change 2009–10. pp 111–112Google Scholar
  50. Srinivasa Rao NK, Laxman RH, Bhatt RM (2012) Interaction effect of elevated CO2 and water stress on onion. National Symposium on Climate Change and Indian Agriculture-Slicing down the uncertainties held from 22–23 January 2013 at CRIDA, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
  51. Stanisavljević NS, Nikolić DB, Jovanović ŽS, Samardžić JT, Radović SR, Maksimović VR (2011) Antioxidative enzymes in the response of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) to complete submergence. Arch Biol Sci 63:399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Streb P, Shang W, Feierabend J, Bligny R (1998) Divergent strategies of photoprotection in high-mountain plants. Planta 207:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tesfay SZ, Bertling I, Odindo AO, Greenfield PL, Workneh TS (2011) Growth responses of tropical onion cultivars to photoperiod and temperature based on growing degree days. Afr J f Biotechnol 10(71):15875–15882Google Scholar
  54. Uzo JO, Currah L (1990) Cultural systems and agronomic practices in tropical climates. In: Rabinowitch HD, Brewster JL (eds) Onions and allied crops. II. Agronomy, biotic interactions, pathology, and crop protection. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 49–62Google Scholar
  55. Van Eeden FJ, Myburgh J (1971) Irrigation trials with onions. Agroplantae 3:57–62Google Scholar
  56. Wannamaker MJ, Pike LM (1987) Onion responses to various salinity levels. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:49–52Google Scholar
  57. Werner JL, Harris CM (1965) Factors influencing the incidence of translucent scale of stored onion bulbs. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 87:341–354Google Scholar
  58. Wheeler TR, Daymond AJ, Morison JIL, Ellis RH, Hadley PP (2004) Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 in onion (Allium cepa) grown at a range of temperatures. Ann Appl Biol 144:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wickramasinghe UL, Wright CJ, Currah L (2000) Bulbing responses of two cultivars of red tropical onions to photoperiod, light integral and temperature under controlled growth conditions. J Hortic Sci Biotech 75:304–311Google Scholar
  60. Willadino L, Camara TR (2010) Tolerância das plantas à salinidade: aspectos fisiológicos e bioquímicos. Enciclopédia Biosfera, Centro Científico Conhecer. Goiânia 6(11):2Google Scholar
  61. Yadav SS, Singh N, Yadav BR (1998) Effect of different levels of soil salinity on growth and yield of onion (Allium cepa L). Ind J Hortic 55:243–247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations