Litchi is an important commercial fruit crop providing nutritional security to millions of people of Southeast Asia. It belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is popularly known as the queen of fruits due to its attractive colour, taste, and quality. It is very fastidious in its climatic requirements and due to this specific characteristic, performance is highly influenced by the growing environment and nutrition. The responses and reactions may be due to various abiotic stresses leading to a series of morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that adversely affect plant growth and development. The complexion further increases with the present scenario of a changing climate, which is causing a wide array of interacting stress factors that increase atmospheric temperature and decrease soil osmotic potential caused by uneven, irregular, and unpredictable rainfall patterns. The scarcity of resources and adverse climatic conditions, singularly or in combination, induce cellular damage and cause a reduction in the physiological growth processes in the plant body. The plant architecture physiology above the ground and the root system below can be adjusted with various biotechnological and other management practices to cope with the adverse effect of the abiotic stresses to achieve the production potential in an economically viable manner. The mechanisms of the physiological basis of abiotic stress tolerance/resistance or to avoid/escape the stress need to be understood using biotechnological tools. Consistent efforts for enhancing the accumulation of specific compounds in response to a stimulus, with compatible solutes, have resulted in some degree of tolerance in litchi plants. The ability to redirect nutrients to imperative processes and the induction of adequate metabolic processes and adjustments are crucial for plant survival in conditions of stress. Proper agronomical management and good agricultural practices with favourable rhizosphere and manipulation have been the important adaptation and mitigation strategies for developing abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms in litchi, although efforts for breeding varieties and use of biotechnological approaches will also extend stress resistance characteristics.


Abiotic Stress Salt Stress Fruit Crop Deficit Irrigation Fruit Growth 


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICAR-National Research Centre for LitchiMuzaffarpurIndia

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