• R. H. LaxmanEmail author
  • C. J. Annapoornamma
  • Geeta Biradar


Mango is well adapted to both tropical and subtropical conditions, and its cultivation extends from Australia to Spain. The crop has adapted to wide growing conditions wherein different rainfall patterns, temperature and soil conditions prevail. However, the best areas for commercial production are with a cool or dry period prior to flowering, abundant soil moisture and moderately hot temperatures (30–33 °C) during fruit development. Although mango has adapted to various environmental conditions, it experiences unfavourable conditions during various phenological stages. Due to its perennial nature, mango tree experiences abiotic stresses, during various developmental stages, individually and also in combination. The frequency and duration of the abiotic stresses are likely to vary under climate change conditions. Temperature has a dominant influence on mango. The frequency, extent of flowering, fruit growth and quality of mango are influenced by temperature. Mango is sustained by rainfall and evenly distributed rainfall is essential for economic production of mango. Occurrence of water stress at flowering stage is advantageous to mango. Under tropical conditions, water stress not only induces flowering but also hastens it. Water stress prevents vegetative flushing and provides more time for accumulation of floral stimulus. Mango growth and gas exchange are adversely affected by flooding, but the trees develop hypertrophic lenticels on stems immediately above the waterline to survive prolonged flooding stress. Saline conditions are not favourable for profitable mango cultivation as the toxic ions cause nutrient imbalance and reduce growth, fruit bearing and yield. However, several rootstock cultivars have exhibited differential tolerance to salinity stress. Tolerant rootstocks could be made use in salt-affected soils to overcome the adverse effects on growth and yield. Since the mango growth, development and final yields are determined by various abiotic factors, thorough understanding of the effects of many abiotic factors, influencing growth, development, phenology and physiology of mango, becomes very essential. Hence, the various abiotic factors affecting mango are discussed hereunder.


Stomatal Conductance Floral Induction Regulate Deficit Irrigation Hermaphrodite Flower Parthenocarpic Fruit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Laxman
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. J. Annapoornamma
    • 1
  • Geeta Biradar
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

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