Advertisement

Physiological and Morphological Responses of Horticultural Crops to Abiotic Stresses

  • N. K. Srinivasa Rao
  • R. H. Laxman
  • K. S. Shivashankara
Chapter

Abstract

The crop-environment interaction in horticultural crops is receiving increased attention in the context of changing climatic conditions. Environmental stresses can cause morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes in crops, resulting in a strong profit reduction. A clear understanding of environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for improving horticultural practices. Drought, excess moisture, salinity and heat stress are amongst the most important environmental factors influencing crop growth, development and yield processes. A comprehensive understanding of the impact of these stress factors will be critical in evaluating the impact of climate change and climate variability on horticultural crop production. Environmental stresses influence an array of processes including physiology, growth, development, yield and quality of crop. A clear understanding of environmental factors and their interaction with physiological processes is extremely important for improving horticultural practices. This review presents the most recent findings about the effects of the main abiotic environmental factors (water, temperature, salinity) on whole plant physiology of horticultural crops.

Keywords

Abiotic Stress Drought Stress Stomatal Conductance Drought Tolerance Adventitious Root 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abass M, Rajashekar CB (1993) Abscisic-acid accumulation in leaves and cultured cells during heat acclimation in grapes. HortSci 28:50–52Google Scholar
  2. Abdalla AA, Verkerk K (1968) Growth, flowering and fruit-set of the tomato at high temperature. Neth J Agric Sci 16:71–76Google Scholar
  3. Almeida AAF, Valle RR (2007) Ecophysiology of cacao tree. Braz J Plant Physiol 19:425–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aloni B, Karni L, Zaidman Z, Schaffer AA (1996) Changes of carbohydrates in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) flowers in relation to their abscission under different shading regimes. Ann Bot 78:163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arquero O, Barranco D, Benlloch M (2006) Potassium starvation increases stomatal conductance in olive trees. HortSci 41:433–436Google Scholar
  6. Ashraf M, Arfan M (2005) Gas exchange characteristics and water relations in two cultivars of Hibiscus esculentus under waterlogging. Biol Plant 49:459–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ashraf M, Rehman H (1999) Mineral nutrient status of corn in relation to nitrate and long-term waterlogging. J Plant Nutr 22:1253–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behboudian MH, Mills TM (1997) Deficit irrigation in deciduous orchards. Hort Rev 21:105–131Google Scholar
  9. Bell J, Duffy P, Covey C, Sloan L (2000) Comparison of temperature variability in observations and sixteen climate models simulations. Geophys Res Lett 27:261–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhardwaj J, Yadav SK (2012) Genetic mechanisms of drought stress tolerance, implications of transgenic crops for agriculture. agro-eco and strate, for climate change. Sustain Agric Rev 8:213–235Google Scholar
  11. Bhatt RM, Rao NKS, Upreti KK, Shobha HS (2009) Floral abscission and changes in sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase activities in water deficit tomato. Indian J Plant Physiol 14:370–376Google Scholar
  12. Blum A (2005) Drought resistance, water-use efficiency, and yield potential-are they compatible, dissonant, or mutually exclusive? Aust J Agric Res 56:1159–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyer JS (1982) Plant productivity and environment. Plant Sci 218:443–448Google Scholar
  14. Bradford KJ, Hsiao TC (1982) Physiological responses to moderate water stress. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 12b, New series. Springer, New York, pp 263–324Google Scholar
  15. Bradford KJ, Yang SF (1980) Xylem transport of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, an ethylene precursor, in waterlogged plants. Plant Physiol 65:322–326CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Bray EA (2002) Classification of genes differentially expressed during water-deficit stress in Arabidopsis thaliana: an analysis using microarray and differential gene expression. Ann Bot 89:803–811Google Scholar
  17. Bray EA, Bailey-Serres J, Weretilnyk E (2000) Responses to abiotic stresses. In: Gruissem W, Buchannan B, Jones R (eds) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. ASPP, Rockville, pp 1158–1249Google Scholar
  18. Capiati DA, Pais SM, Tellez-Inon MT (2006) Wounding increases salt tolerance in tomato plants: evidence on the participation of calmodulin-like activities in cross-tolerance signalling. J Exp Bot 57:2391–2400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaikiattiyos S, Menzel CM, Rasmussen TS (1994) Floral induction in tropical fruit trees: effects of temperature and water supply. J Hortic Sci 69:397–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chartzoulakis K, Patakas A, Bosabalidis AM (1999) Changes in water relations, photosynthesis and leaf anatomy induced by intermittent drought in two olive cultivars. Environ Exp Bot 42:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cheeseman JM (1988) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance in plants. Plant Physiol 87:547–550CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Cullis CA (1991) Breeding for resistance for physiological stress. In: Murray DR (ed) Advanced methods in plant breeding and biotechnology. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 340–351Google Scholar
  23. DaCosta M, Huang BR (2006) Osmotic adjustment associated with variation in bentgrass tolerance to drought stress. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 131:338–344Google Scholar
  24. Davies FS, Flore JA (1986a) Short-term flooding effects on gas exchange and quantum yield of rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade). Plant Physiol 81(1):289–292CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies FS, Flore JA (1986b) Gas exchange and flooding stress of high bush and rabbiteye blueberries. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 111:565–571Google Scholar
  26. Demirevska K, Zasheva D, Dimitrov R, Simova-Stoilova L, Stamenova M, Feller U (2009) Drought stress effects on Rubisco in wheat: changes in the Rubisco large subunit. Acta Physiol Plant 31:1129–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Drew MC (1979) Plant responses to anaerobic conditions in soil and solution culture. Curr Adv Plant Sci 36:1–14Google Scholar
  28. Duan B, Yang Y, Lu Y, Korpelainen H, Berninger F, Li C (2007) Interactions between drought stress, ABA and genotypes in Picea asperata. J Exp Bot 58:3025–3036CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Erickson AN, Markhart AH (2002) Flower developmental stage and organ sensitivity of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) to elevated temperature. Plant Cell Environ 25:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. FAO (2002) Le the salt of the earth: hazardous for food production. In: Word Food Summit. Five years later, FAO, Rome, Italy, 10–13 June 2012Google Scholar
  31. Folzer H, Dat J, Capelli N, Rieffel D, Badot PM (2006) Response to flooding of sessile oak seedlings (Quercus petraea) to flooding: an integrative study. Tree Physiol 26:759–766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Foolad MR (2004) Recent advances in genetics of salt tolerance in tomato. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 76:101–119Google Scholar
  33. Foolad MR (2005) Breeding for abiotic stress tolerances in tomato. In: Ashraf M, Harris PJC (eds) Abiotic stresses: plant resistance through breeding and molecular approaches. The Haworth Press, New York, pp 613–684Google Scholar
  34. Galán-Saúco VG, Rodríguez-Pastor MCR (2007) Greenhouse cultivation of papaya. Acta Horticult 740:191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hazra P, Samsul HA, Sikder D, Peter KV (2007) Breeding tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill) resistant to high temperature stress. Int J Electron Plant Breed 1:31–40Google Scholar
  36. Higuchi H, Utsunomiya N, Sakuratani T (1998) High temperature effects on cherimoya fruit set, growth and development under greenhouse conditions. Sci Hortic 77:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hsiao TC, Xu LK (2000) Sensitivity of growth of roots versus leaves to water stress: biophysical analysis and relation to water transport. J Exp Bot 51:1596–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Issarakraisila M, Ma Q, Turner DW (2007) Photosynthetic and growth responses of juvenile Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) and Caisin (Brassica rapa subsp. parachinensis) to waterlogging and water deficit. Sci Hortic 111:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson MB, Kowalewska AKB (1983) Positive and negative messages from roots induce foliar desiccation and stomatal closure in flooded pea plants. J Exp Bot 34:493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jones RA (1986) High salt tolerance potential in Lycopersicon species during germination. Euphytica 35:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jones HG, Tardieu F (1998) Modelling water relations of horticultural crops: a review. Sci Hortic 74:21–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kawase M (1981) Anatomical and morphological adaptation of plants to water logging. HortSci 16:30–34Google Scholar
  43. Kositsup B, Montpied P, Kasemsap P, Thaler P, Ameglio T, Dreyer E (2009) Photosynthetic capacity and temperature responses of photosynthesis of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) acclimate to changes in ambient temperatures. Tree Physiol 23:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kumar K, Rashid R, Bhat JA, Bhat ZA (2011) Effects of high temperature on fruit crops. Elixir Appl Bot 39:4745–4747Google Scholar
  45. Kuo CG, Chen BW (1980) Physical responses of tomato cultivars to flooding. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 105:751–755Google Scholar
  46. Kuo CG, Tsay JS, Chen BW, Lin PY (1982) Screening for flooding tolerance in the genus Lycopersicon. Hortic Sci 17:76–78Google Scholar
  47. Larcher W (2003) Physiological plant ecology, 4th edn. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Larson KD, Schaffer B, Davies FS (1993) Physiological, morphological and growth responses of mango trees to flooding. Acta Horticult 342:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ledesma NA, Nakata M, Sugiyama N (2008) Effect of high temperature stress on the reproductive growth of strawberry cvs. ‘Nyoho’ and ‘Toyonoka’. Sci Hortic 116:186–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lei Y, Yin C, Li C (2006) Differences in some morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress in two contrasting populations of Populus przewalskii. Physiol Plant 127:182–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liao CT, Lin CH (1994) Effect of flooding stress on photosynthetic activities of Momordica charantia. Plant Physiol Biochem 32:1–5Google Scholar
  52. Liao CT, Lin CH (1996) Photosynthetic responses of grafted bitter melon seedlings to flooding stress. Environ Exp Bot 36:167–172Google Scholar
  53. Lizaso JI, Meléndez LM, Ramírez R (2001) Early flooding of two cultivars of tropical maize. II. Nutritional responses. J Plant Nutr 24:997–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lombardini L (2006) Ecophysiology of plants in dry environments. In: D’Odorico P, Porporato A (eds) Dryland ecohydrology. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mano Y, Omori F (2007) Breeding for flooding tolerant maize using “teosinte” as a germplasm resource. Plant Roots 1:17–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Marcelis LFM, Heuvenlink E, Goudriaan J (1998) Modeling biomass production and yield of horticultural crops: a review. Sci Hortic 74:83–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marsal J, Girona J (1997) Effects of water stress cycles on turgor maintenance processes in pear leaves (Pyrus communis). Tree Physiol 17:327–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Mitchell PD, Chalmers DJ (1982) The effect of reduced water supply on peach tree growth and yield. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 107:853–856Google Scholar
  59. Mitchell PD, Jerie PH, Chalmers DJ (1984) The effects of regulated water deficits on pear tree growth, flowering, fruit growth, and yield. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:604–606Google Scholar
  60. Mitra J (2001) Genetics and genetic improvement of drought resistance in crop plants. Curr Sci 80:758–763Google Scholar
  61. Olasantan FO (2007) Vegetable production in tropical africa: status and strategies for sustainable management. J Sustain Agric 30:41–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pandey CB, Srivastava RC, Singh RK (2009) Soil nitrogen mineralization and microbial biomass relations; and nitrogen conservation in humid tropics. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73:1142–1149Google Scholar
  63. Rao R, Li YC (2003) Management of flooding effects on growth of vegetable and selected field crops. HortTechnology 13:610–616Google Scholar
  64. Raviv M, Blom TJ (2001) The effect of water availability and quality on photosynthesis and productivity of soil-less grown cut roses. Sci Hortic 88:257–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Roitsch T (1999) Source-sink regulation by sugar and stress. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2:198–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sage R, Kubien D (2007) The temperature response of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. Plant Cell Environ 30:1086–1106CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Sato S, Peet MM, Thomas JF (2002) Determining critical pre- and post-anthesis periods and physiological processes in Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. exposed to moderately elevated temperatures. J Exp Bot 53:1187–1195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schaffer B, Anderson PC (1994) Handbook of environmental physiology of fruit crops, vol 2, Subtropical and Tropical Crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 310Google Scholar
  69. Sinha SK (1986) Drought resistance in crop plants: a physiological and biochemical analysis. In: Chopra VL, Paroda RS (eds) Approaches for incorporating drought and salinity resistance in crop plants. Oxford/IBH, New Delhi, pp 56–86Google Scholar
  70. Spreer W, Nagle M, Neidhart S, Carle R, Ongprasert S, Müller J (2007) Effect of regulated deficit irrigation and partial rootzone drying on the quality of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L., cv. ‘Chok Anan’). Agric Water Manag 88:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stevens MA, Rudich J (1978) Genetic potential for overcoming physiological limitations on adaptability, yield, and quality in tomato. HortSci 13:673–678Google Scholar
  72. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2006) Plant physiology, 4th edn. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  73. Tamura F, Tanabe K, Katayama M, Itai A (1996) Effects of flooding on ethanol and ethylene production by pear rootstocks. J Jpn Soc Hortic Sci 65:261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Tardieu F, Davies WJ (1992) Stomatal response to abscisic acid is a function of current plant water status. Plant Physiol 98:540–545Google Scholar
  75. Topa MA, Cheeseman JM (1992) Effects of root hypoxia and a low P supply on relative growth, carbon dioxide exchange rates and carbon partitioning in Pinus serotina seedlings. Physiol Plant 86:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Vu CV, Yelenosky G (1991) Photosynthetic responses of citrus trees to soil flooding. Physiol Plant 81(1):7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Walter S, Heuberger H, Schnitzler WS (2004) Sensibility of different vegetables of oxygen deficiency and aeration with H2O2 in the rhizosphere. Acta Horticult 659:499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218:1–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Weis E, Berry JA (1988) Plants and high temperature stress. Soc Exp Biol 42:329–346Google Scholar
  81. Wentworth M, Murchie EH, Gray JE, Villegas D, Pastenes C, Pinto M, Horton P (2006) Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress. II. Acclimation of photosynthesis. J Exp Bot 57:699–709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Wien HC (1997) The physiology of vegetable crops. CAB International, Wallingford, p 672Google Scholar
  83. Wien HC, Turner AD, Yang SF (1989) Hormonal basis for low light intensity-induced flower bud abscission of pepper. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 114:981–985Google Scholar
  84. Xiong L, Wang RG, Mao G, Koczan JM (2006) Identification of drought tolerance determinants by genetic analysis of root response to drought stress and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 142:1065–1074CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Xue GP, McIntyre CL, Glassop D, Shorter R (2008) Use of expression analysis to dissect alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in wheat leaves during drought stress. Plant Mol Biol 67:197–214Google Scholar
  86. Yamada MH, Yamane T, Hirabayashi T (1986) Studies on cross breeding of Japanese Persimmon (Diospyros Kaki Thumb) 5.Variation of fruit cracking under calyx. Bull Fruit Tree Res Sta E 6:11–20Google Scholar
  87. Yamada M, Hidaka T, Fukamachi H (1996) Heat tolerance in leaves of tropical fruit crops as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence. Sci Hortic 67:39–48Google Scholar
  88. Yamaguchi T, Blumwald E (2005) Developing salt-tolerant crop plants: challenges and opportunities. Trends Plant Sci 10:615–620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Yordanova R, Christov K, Popova L (2004) Antioxidative enzymes in barley plants subjected to soil flooding. Environ Exp Bot 51:91–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yordanova R, Christov K, Popova L (2004) Antioxidative enzymes in barley plants subjected to soil flooding. Environ Exp Bot 51:93–101Google Scholar
  91. Zhang J, Davies WJ (1987) ABA in roots and leaves of flooded pea plants. J Exp Bot 38:649–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zhang JH, Huang WD, Liu YP, Pan QH (2005) Effects of temperature acclimation pretreatment on the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells in young grape plants (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Jingxiu) under cross-temperature stresses. J Integr Plant Biol 47:959–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. K. Srinivasa Rao
    • 1
  • R. H. Laxman
    • 1
  • K. S. Shivashankara
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant Physiology and BiochemistryICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBengaluruIndia

Personalised recommendations