Gastrointestinal Emergencies



The most common gastrointestinal emergencies encountered in the emergency department are acute gastroenteritis and gastrointestinal bleeding, and these two entities are addressed in this chapter.


Fresh Freeze Plasma Acute Gastroenteritis Hypovolemic Shock Severe Acute Malnutrition Fluid Bolus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Section A: Acute Gastroenteritis

  1. 1.
    Monitoring the situation of children and women. UNICEF Data 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bassani DG, Kumar R, Awasthi S, Morris SK, Paul VK, Shet A, et al. Causes of neonatal and child mortality in India: a nationally representative mortality survey. Lancet. 2010;376:1853–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morris SK, Awasthi S, Khera A, Bassani DG, Kang G, Parashar UD, et al. Rotavirus mortality in India: estimates based on a nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:720–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parashar UD, Burton A, Lanata C, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Steele D, et al. Global mortality associated with rotavirus disease among children in 2004. J Infect Dis. 2009;200 Suppl 1:S9–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diarrheal disease, Fact sheet N 330, WHO, Apr 2013.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhutta ZA. Acute gastroenteritis in children. In: Kliegman S, Geme ST, Behrman S, editors. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Saunders; 2011. p. 1323–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diarrhea. In: Students’ hand book for IMNCI. World Health Organization, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Government of India. New Delhi. 2003; p. 55–60.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness, Chart booklet, World Health Organization, Geneva. 2014; p. 12.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Case management of children presenting with diarrhea. In: Facility based integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (F-IMNCI) participant’s manual, World Health Organization, UNICEF, Ministry of Health & Family welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. 2009; p. 169–77.Google Scholar

Section B: Gastrointestinal Bleed

  1. 10.
    Lacroix J, Tucci M, Tinmouth A, Gauvin F, Karam O. Transfusion medicine. In: Fuhrman BP, Zimmermann JJ, Carcillo JA, Clark RSB, Monica R, Rotta AT, Thompson AE, Tobias JD, editors. Pediatric critical care. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Saunders; 2011. p. 1169–76.Google Scholar
  2. 11.
    Conteras M. Final statement from the consensus conference on platelet transfusion. Transfusion. 1998;38:796–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 12.
    Osman D, Djibré M, Da Silva D, Goulenok C, Group of Experts. Management by the intensivist of gastrointestinal bleeding in adults and children. Ann Intensive Care. 2012;2:46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 13.
    Carbonell N, Pauwels A, Serfaty L, Boelle PY, Becquemont L, Poupon R. Erythromycin infusion prior to endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1211–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 14.
    Altraif I, Handoo FA, Aljumah A, Alalwan A, Dafalla M, Saeed AM, et al. Effect of erythromycin before endoscopy in patients presenting with variceal bleeding: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2011;73:245–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 15.
    Kupfer Y, Cappell MS, Tessler S. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the intensive care unit- the intensivist’s perspective. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2000;29:275–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 16.
    Bystrak L, Heine AM, Michienzi, Stojanovski. Gastrointestinal pharmacology. In: Furhman BP, Zimmermann JJ, editors. Pediatric critical care. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, Saunders; 2011. p. 1234–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 17.
    Fishman DS, Bousvaros A. Management of nutritional, gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. In: Graef JW, Wolfsdorf JI, Greenes DS, editors. Manual of pediatric therapeutics. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins; 2008. p. 359–405.Google Scholar
  9. 18.
    Comar KM, Sanyal AJ. Portal hypertensive bleeding. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2003;32:1078–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 19.
    Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, Concepción M, Hernandez-Gea V, Aracil C, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(1):11–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 20.
    Mileti E, Rosenthal P. Management of portal hypertension in children. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2011;13(1):10–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 21.
    Abid S, Jafri W, Hamid S, Salih M, Azam Z, Mumtaz K, et al. Terlipressin vs. octreotide in bleeding esophageal varices as an adjuvant therapy with endoscopic band ligation: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104(3):617–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 22.
    El-Rifai N, Mention K, Guimber D, Michaud L, Boman F, Turck D, et al. Gastropathy and gastritis in children with portal hypertension. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007;45:137–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 23.
    Guideline No: 0/C/06:8233-01:01 guideline: gastrointestinal bleeding – CHW, Date of Publishing: 25 Oct 2012 2:48 PM Date of Printing: Page 11 of 11 K:\CHW P&P\ePolicy\Oct 12\Gastrointestinal Bleeding – CHW.doc.Google Scholar
  15. 24.
    Biecker E. Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: diagnosis, prevention and management. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(31):5035–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 25.
    Rockey DC. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:165–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Social Pediatrics, Stanley Medical CollegeChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations