Face and Neck Trauma



  • Management of the airway may be complex.

  • Haemorrhage control is essential and often challenging.

  • Neck wounds must be adequately evaluated to prevent later complications.

  • Blunt neck trauma is an often under-evaluated cause of vascular injury.


Laryngeal Mask Airway Cervical Spine Injury Neck Injury Neck Trauma Maxillofacial Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Tuckett JW, Lynham A, Lee GA, Perry M, Harrington U. Maxillofacial trauma in the emergency department: a review. Surgeon. 2014;12(2):106–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perry M, Dancey A, Mireskandari K, Oakley P, Davies S, Cameron M. Emergency care in facial trauma – a maxillofacial and ophthalmic perspective. Injury. 2005;36:875–96. Int. J Care Injured.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perry M, Morris C. Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) and facial trauma: can one size fit all? Part 2: ATLS, maxillofacial injuries and airway management dilemmas. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(4):309–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kauvar DS, Lefering R, Wade CE. Impact of hemorrhage on trauma outcome: an overview of epidemiology, clinical presentations, and therapeutic considerations. J Trauma. 2006;60(6 Suppl):S3–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Perry M, O’Hare J, Porter G. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and facial trauma: can one size fit all? Part 3: hypovolaemia and facial injuries in the multiply injured patient. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(5):405–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tung TC, Tseng WS, Chen CT, Lai JP, Chen YR. Acute life-threatening injuries in facial fracture patients: a review of 1,025 patients. J Trauma. 2000;49(3):420–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ardekian L, Rosen D, Klein Y, Peled M, Michaelson M, Laufer D. Life-threatening complications and irreversible damage following maxillofacial trauma. Injury. 1998;29(4):253–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chiu WC, Haan JM, Cushing BM, Kramer ME, Scalea TM. Ligamentous injuries of the cervical spine in unreliable blunt trauma patients: incidence, evaluation, and outcome. J Trauma. 2001;50(3):457–63 [discussion 464].CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ross SE, O’Malley KF, DeLong WG, Born CT, Schwab CW. Clinical predictors of unstable cervical spinal injury in multiply injured patients. Injury. 1992;23(5):317–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beirne JC, Butler PE, Brady FA. Cervical spine injuries in patients with facial fractures: a 1-year prospective study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1995;24(1 Pt 1):26–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sinclair D, Schwartz M, Gruss J, McLellan B. A retrospective review of the relationship between facial fractures, head injuries, and cervical spine injuries. J Emerg Med. 1988;6(2):109–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haug RH, Wible RT, Likavec MJ, Conforti PJ. Cervical spine fractures and maxillofacial trauma. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1991;49(7):725–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stiell IG, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, Clement CM, Lesiuk H, De Maio VJ, et al. The Canadian C-spine rule for radiography in alert and stable trauma patients. JAMA. 2001;286(15):1841–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hoffman JR, Mower WR, Wolfson AB, Todd KH, Zucker MI. Validity of a set of clinical criteria to rule out injury to the cervical spine in patients with blunt trauma. National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000;343(2):94–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dupanovic M, Fox H, Kovac A. Management of the airway in multitrauma. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2010;23(2):276–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rana AR, Drongowski R, Breckner G, Ehrlich PF. Traumatic cervical spine injuries: characteristics of missed injuries. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(1):151–5 [discussion 155].CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schmidt OI, Gahr RH, Gosse A, Heyde CE. ATLS(R) and damage control in spine trauma. World J Emerg Surg. 2009;4:9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lynham AJ, Hirst JP, Cosson JA, Chapman PJ, McEniery P. Emergency department management of maxillofacial trauma. Emerg Med Australas. 2004;16(1):7–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lalani Z, Bonanthaya KM. Cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997;35(4):243–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    MacKinnon CA, David DJ, Cooter RD. Blindness and severe visual impairment in facial fractures: an 11 year review. Br J Plast Surg. 2002;55(1):1–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Perry M, Moutray T. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and facial trauma: can one size fit all? Part 4: ‘can the patient see?’ Timely diagnosis, dilemmas and pitfalls in the multiply injured, poorly responsive/unresponsive patient. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;37(6):505–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Petro J, Tooze FM, Bales CR, Baker G. Ocular injuries associated with periorbital fractures. J Trauma. 1979;19(10):730–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ceallaigh PO, Ekanaykaee K, Beirne CJ, Patton DW. Diagnosis and management of common maxillofacial injuries in the emergency department. Part 4: orbital floor and midface fractures. Emerg Med J. 2007;24(4):292–3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wearne MJ, Flaxel CJ, Gray P, Sullivan PM, Cooling RJ. Vitreoretinal surgery after inadvertent globe penetration during local ocular anesthesia. Ophthalmology. 1998;105(2):371–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kulkarni AR, Aggarwal SP, Kulkarni RR, Deshpande MD, Walimbe PB, Labhsetwar AS. Ocular manifestations of head injury: a clinical study. Eye (Lond). 2005;19(12):1257–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Larsen M, Wieslander S. Acute orbital compartment syndrome after lateral blow-out fracture effectively relieved by lateral cantholysis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999;77(2):232–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hislop WS, Dutton GN, Douglas PS. Treatment of retrobulbar haemorrhage in accident and emergency departments. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1996;34(4):289–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bailey WK, Kuo PC, Evans LS. Diagnosis and treatment of retrobulbar haemorrhage. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1993;51(7):780–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bromberg WJ, Collier BC, Diebel LN, Dwyer KM, Holevar MR, Jacobs DG, et al. Blunt cerebrovascular injury practice management guidelines: the eastern association for the surgery of trauma. J Trauma. 2010;68:471–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Navsaria P, Thoma M, Nicol A. Foley catheter balloon tamponade for life-threatening hemorrhage in penetrating neck trauma. World J Surg. 2006;30(7):1265–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shiroff AM, Gale SC, Martin ND, Marchalik D, Petrov D, Ahmed HM, et al. Penetrating neck trauma: a review of management strategies and discussion of the ‘No Zone’ approach. Am Surg. 2013;79(1):23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nel L, Whitfield Jones L, Hardcastle TC. Imaging the oesophagus after penetrating cervical trauma using water soluble contrast alone: simple, cost effective and accurate. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:106–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Maxillo Facial and Oral SurgeryKing Edward VIII Central HospitalDurbanSouth Africa
  2. 2.Trauma Service IALCHTrauma Surgery UKZNDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations