Anorectal Disorders

  • Rodrick Babakhanlou


Understanding the anorectal anatomy is crucial in diagnosing and treating anorectal conditions.


Inflammatory Bowel Disease Foreign Body Anal Canal Anal Fissure Digital Rectal Examination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Brenner BE, Simon RR. Anorectal emergencies. Ann Emerg Med. 1983;12:367–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mahadevan V. The anatomy of the rectum and anal canal. Surgery. 2010;29:1.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett AE. Correlative anatomy of the anus and rectum. Semin Ultrasound CT MRI. 2008;29:400–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaidar-Person O, Person B, Wexner SD. Hemorrhoidal disease: a comprehensive review. J Am Coll Surg. 2007;204(1):101–17.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Felt-Bersma RJF, Bartelsman JF. Haemorrhoids, rectal prolapse, anal fissure, peri-anal fistulae and sexually transmitted diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2009;23:575–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Madoff RD, Fleshman JW. American gastroenterological association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhoids. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1463–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kann BR, Whitlow CB. Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and management. Tech Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;6(1):6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cataldo P, Ellis N, Gregorcyk S, et al. Practice parameters for the management of hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005;48:189–94.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Riss S, et al. The prevalence of haemorrhoids in adults. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27:215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heitland W. Fisteln und Fissuren. Chirurg. 2008;79:439–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wray D, Ijaz S, Lidder S. Anal fissure: a review. Br J Hosp Med. 2008;69(8):455–8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cross KLR, Massey EJD, Fowler AL, Monson JRT. The management of anal fissure: ACPGBI position statement. Colorectal Dis. 2008;10 Suppl 3:1–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herold A. Proktologie: haemorrhoidalleiden, fissur, abscess, fistel. Gastroenterologe. 2009;4:137–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Billingham RP, Isler JT, Kimmins MH, et al. The diagnosis and management of common anorectal disorders. Curr Probl Surg. 2004;41(7):586–645.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schubert MC, Sridhar S, Schade RR, Wexner SD. What every gastroenterologist needs to know about common anorectal disorders. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15(26):3201–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lacy BE, Weiser K. Common anorectal disorders: diagnosis and treatment. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2009;11:413–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jones OM, Brading AF, Mortensen NJ. Mechanism of action of botulinum toxin on the internal anal sphincter. Br J Surg. 2004;91:224–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khanna A, Rombeau JL. Pilonidal disease. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2011;24:46–53.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sullivan DJ, Brooks DC, Breen E. Intergluteal pilonidal disease: clinical manifestations and diagnosis. Upto date, 2012.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rickard MJFX. Anal abscesses and fistulas. ANZ J Surg. 2005;75:64–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Steele RC, Kumar R, Feingold DL, et al. Practice parameters for the management of perianal abscess and fistula-in-ano. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011;54:1465–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abcarian H. Anorectal infection: abscess-fistula. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2011;24:14.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ommer A, Herold A, Berg E, Farke S, et al. Leitlinie Analabszess. Coloproctology. 2011;33:378–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    George BD. Anal and perianal disorders. Medicine. 2007;35(3):147–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Siddiqi S, Vijay V, Mahendran R, Warren S. Pruritus ani. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2008;90:457–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zuccati G, Lotti T, Mastrolorenzo A, Rapaccini A, Tiradritti L. Pruritus ani. Dermatol Ther. 2005;18:355–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Daniel GL, Longo WE, Vernava AM. Pruritus ani. Causes and concerns. Dis Colon Rectum. 1994;37:670–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Markell KW, Billingham RP. Pruritus ani: etiology and management. Surg Clin N Am. 2010;90:125–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ayantunde AA. Approach to the diagnosis and management of retained rectal foreign bodies: clinical update. Tech Coloproctol. 2013;17:13–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kurer MA, Davey C, Khan S, et al. Colorectal foreign bodies: a systematic review. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:851–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hermosa-Rodriguez IJ, Codina-Cazador A, Ruiz B, et al. Management of foreign bodies in the rectum. Colorectal Dis. 2006;9:543–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clarke DL, Buccimazza I, Anderson FA, et al. Colorectal foreign bodies. Colorectal Dis. 2005;7:98–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Koornstra JJ, Weersma RK. Management of rectal foreign bodies: description of a new technique and clinical practice guidelines. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(27):4403–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yildiz SY, Kendirici M, Akbulut S, et al. Colorectal emergencies associated with penetrating or retained foreign bodies. World J Emerg Surg. 2013;8:25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Coskun A, Erkan N, Yakan S, et al. Management of rectal foreign bodies. World J Emerg Surg. 2013;8:11.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson SO, Hartranft TH. Nonsurgical removal of a rectal foreign body using a vacuum extractor. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996;39(8):935–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency MedicineWexham Park HospitalBerkshireUK

Personalised recommendations