Acute Psychiatric Disorder

  • Ravi Pattanshetty


Acute psychosis has both functional and organic causes. In the emergency department, ruling out causes of organic psychosis first is crucial.


Personality Disorder Conversion Disorder Physical Restraint Delusional Disorder Thought Insertion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed, text revision (DSM-IV-TR).
  2. 2.
    Tintinalli JE, Peacock FW, Wright MA. Emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23:859–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marx J, Hockerberg R, Walls R. Rosen’s emergency medicine concepts and clinical practice. 7th ed. 2010; Mosby; Philadelphia. ISBN: 978-0-323-05472-0.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Health and training institute. Acute psychiatric management. 2nd ed.
  5. 5.
    Crow TJ, Harrington CA. Etiopathogenesis and treatment of psychosis. Annu Rev Med. 1994;45:219–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breslow RE, Klinger BI, Erickson BJ. Acute intoxication and substance abuse among patients presenting to a psychiatric emergency service. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1996;18(3):183–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frame DS, Kercher EE. Acute psychosis: functional vs. organic. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 1991;9:123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Battaglia J, et al. Haloperidol, lorazepam, or both for psychotic agitation? A multicenter, prospective, double-blind, emergency department study. Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15:335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shale JF, et al. A review of the safety and efficacy of droperidol for the rapid sedation of severely agitated and violent patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64:500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amore M M.D., Menchetti M M.D., Tonti C PsyD, Scarlatti F M.D., Lundgren E M.D., Esposito W M.D., Berardi D M.D. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008;62(3):247–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hall RCW M.D., Popkin MK M.D., Devaul RA M.D., Faillace LA M.D., Stickney SK R.N. Physical illness presenting as psychiatric disease. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1978;35(11):1315–20. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1978.01770350041003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Binder RL M.D., McNiel DE Ph.D. Emergency psychiatry: contemporary practices in managing acutely violent patients in 20 psychiatric emergency rooms. Psychiatry Online. 1999;50(12):1553–4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martel M, Sterzinger A, Miner J, Clinton J, Biros M. Management of acute undifferentiated agitation in the emergency department: a randomized double-blind trial of droperidol, ziprasidone, and midazolam. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12:1167–72. doi: 10.1197/j.aem.2005.07.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lukens TW, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the diagnosis and management of the adult psychiatric patient in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;47(1):79–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yildiz A, Sachs GS, Turgay A. Pharmacological management of agitation in emergency settings. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:339–46. doi: 10.1136/emj.20.4.339.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    American College of Emergency Physicians. Clinical policy for the initial approach to patients presenting with altered mental status. Ann Emerg Med. 1999;33:251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Talbot-Stern JK, Green T, Royle TJ. Psychiatric manifestations of systemic illness. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2000;18:199.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Allen MH. Managing the agitated psychotic patient: a reappraisal of the evidence. SOJ Clin Psychiatry. 2000;61 Suppl 14:11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Emergency Medicine, John Radcliffe HospitalOxford University HospitalsOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations