Gastrointestinal Bleeding

  • Sridhakshini Sathasivam


Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI bleed) is a common life-threatening emergency with a 10 % mortality rate [1]. Traditionally it is described as bleeding occurring from the GI tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz.


Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Variceal Bleeding Dyspeptic Symptom Haemodynamic Instability Oesophageal Varix 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Button LA, Roberts SE, Evans PA, Goldacre MJ, Akbari A, D’silva R, et al. Hospitalized incidence and case fatality for upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 1999 to 2007: a record linkage study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011;33(1):64–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Laine L, Shah A. Randomized trial of urgent vs. elective colonoscopy in patients hospitalized with lower GI bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(12):2636–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jutabha R, Jensen DM. Management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the patient with chronic liver disease. Med Clin North Am. 1996;80(5):1035–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blatchford O, Murray WR, Blatchford M. A risk score to predict need for treatment for upper-gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet. 2000;356(9238):1318–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dworzynski K, Pollit V, Kelsey A, Higgins B, Palmer K. Guideline Development Group. Management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: summary of NICE guidance. BMJ. 2012;344:e3412. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3412.pmid:22695897.
  6. 6.
    Chavez-Tapia NC, Barrientos-Gutierrez T, Tellez-Avila FI, Soares-Weiser K, Uribe M. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;9:CD002907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Biecker E. Review article, gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. Hepatology. 2013;2013, 541836.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sreedharan A, Martin J, Leontiadis GI, Dorward S, Howden CW, Moayyedi P. Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;7:CD005415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee JG. What is the value of early endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;3(10):534–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bhuiyan MMR, Rahman MM, Kibria MG, Hasan M. Comparative study of endoscopic band ligation and sclerotherapy for treatment of oesophageal varices in cirrhotic patients. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2007;33(1):31–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gayer C, Chino A, Lucas C, Tokioka S, Yamasaki T, Edelman DA, et al. Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 1,112 patients admitted to an urban emergency medical center. Surgery. 2009;146(4):600–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EmergencyEast of England deanery, Lister HospitalStevenageUK

Personalised recommendations