Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

  • Seema O. Brij
  • Sumit Chatterji
  • Malcolm Marquette


  • COPD is a major global health problem and is predicted to be the third commonest cause of death worldwide by 2030.

  • COPD is characterised by airflow obstruction that is slowly progressive and persistent. This is easily measurable with spirometry, and the rate of decline in FEV1 predicts morbidity and mortality.

  • Severity of COPD is based upon a combination of factors including symptoms, functional disability, rate of decline of FEV1, presence of respiratory failure, the number of exacerbations and whether they require hospital admission.

  • Stopping smoking continues to be the most cost-effective way of preventing COPD.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient Fluticasone Propionate Airflow Obstruction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. COPD guideline CG 101 (Published 2010 and revised 2014).
  2. 2.
    Halbert RJ, Natoli JL, Gano A, Badambarav E, Buist AS, Mannino DM. Global burden of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2006;28:523–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Revised 2011).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, Casanova C, Montes de Oca M, Mendez RA, Pinto Plata V, Cabral HJ. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(10):1005–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lareau SC, ZuWallack R, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation: official statement of the American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;159:1666–82.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Plant PK, Owen JL, Elliott MW. Early use of non-invasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on general respiratory wards: a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;355:1931–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Confalonieri M, Parigi P, Scartabellati A, et al. Noninvasive mechanical ventilation improves the immediate and long-term outcome of COPD patients with acute respiratory failure. Eur Respir J. 1996;9:422–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vitacca M, Clini E, Rubini F, et al. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in severe chronic obstructive lung disease and acute respiratory failure: short-and long-term prognosis. Intensive Care Med. 1996;22:94–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seema O. Brij
    • 1
  • Sumit Chatterji
    • 1
  • Malcolm Marquette
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Respiratory MedicinePeterborough City HospitalPeterboroughUK

Personalised recommendations