Acute Respiratory Failure

  • John Victor Peter


  • Respiratory failure may be categorised as hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  • Simple algorithms help to diagnose and understand the causes of respiratory failure.

  • Management goals include treating the underlying problem, improving oxygenation and/or carbon dioxide levels and limiting the deleterious effects of such treatment.

  • Respiratory support can be provided by non-invasive devices or by invasive ventilation.


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Respiratory Failure Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation Critical Illness Polyneuropathy 
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Further Reading

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  2. 2.
    British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. Non-invasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure. Thorax. 2002;57:192–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Fitting JW. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure: simple or too simple? Eur Resp J. 2006;27:881–3.Google Scholar
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    Gunning KEJ. Pathophysiology of respiratory failure and indications for respiratory support. Surgery (Oxford). 2003;21:72–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Irwin RS, Cerra FB, Rippe JM. Irwin and Rippe’s intensive care medicine. Sheffield, UK: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.Google Scholar
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    John G, Peter JV, Subramani K, Pichamuthu K, Chacko B. Essentials of critical care, vol. I, 8th ed. Division of Critical Care, Christian Medical College, Vellore; 2011.Google Scholar
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    Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalzo JL. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 18th ed. TX, USA: Mc-Graw Hill Medical; 2011.Google Scholar
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    Roussos C, Koutsoukou A. Respiratory failure. Eur Resp J. 2002;22 Suppl 47:3a–14.Google Scholar
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    Ward JJ. High-flow oxygen administration by nasal cannula for adult and perinatal patients. Respir Care. 2013;58:98–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medical Intensive Care UnitChristian Medical CollegeVelloreIndia

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