Hot Spots of Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems

  • Abhijit Mitra
  • Sufia Zaman


Mangroves are a special type of vegetation that thrive in sediments that have a high salt concentration and are usually surrounded by seawater or estuarine water. As a result of these environmental conditions, they must conserve water and they exhibit adaptation similar to those found in salt marsh plants. These adaptations help to reduce the loss of water by evaporation from the leaves. In mangroves, the epidermis of the leaf is usually covered with a thick cuticle, and the stomata are sunken in nature that are usually confined to the undersurface. Another important adaptation in mangroves involves the germination of seeds. Unlike in most of the plant, the embryo in most mangroves germinates while the seed is still attached to parent plant.


Coral Reef Mangrove Forest Great Barrier Reef Reef Flat Mangrove Ecosystem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  • Sufia Zaman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of OceanographyTechno India UniversityKolkataIndia

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