Advertisement

Hot Spots of Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems

  • Abhijit Mitra
  • Sufia Zaman
Chapter

Abstract

Mangroves are a special type of vegetation that thrive in sediments that have a high salt concentration and are usually surrounded by seawater or estuarine water. As a result of these environmental conditions, they must conserve water and they exhibit adaptation similar to those found in salt marsh plants. These adaptations help to reduce the loss of water by evaporation from the leaves. In mangroves, the epidermis of the leaf is usually covered with a thick cuticle, and the stomata are sunken in nature that are usually confined to the undersurface. Another important adaptation in mangroves involves the germination of seeds. Unlike in most of the plant, the embryo in most mangroves germinates while the seed is still attached to parent plant.

Keywords

Coral Reef Mangrove Forest Great Barrier Reef Reef Flat Mangrove Ecosystem 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Appukuttan, K. K., Chellam, A., Ramadoss, K., Victor, A. C. C., & Meiyappan, M. M. (1989). Molluscan resources. CMFRI Bulletin, 43, 77–92.Google Scholar
  2. Badola, R., & Hussain, S. A. (2005). Valuing ecosystem functions: An empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 85–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ban, C. (1997). The economic valuation of tropical forest land use options. Singapore: The Economy and Environment Programme for Southeast Asia (EPSEA).Google Scholar
  4. Batagoda, B. M. S. (2003). The economic valuation of alternative uses of mangrove forests in Sri Lanka. The Hague: UNEP/Global programme of Action for the protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.Google Scholar
  5. Burke, L., Kura, Y., Kassem, K., Revenga, C., Spalding, M., & McAllister, D. (2001). Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: Coastal ecosystems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.Google Scholar
  6. Cahoon, D. R., Reed, D. J., & Day, J. W. (1995). Estimating shallow subsidence in microtidal salt marshes of the southeastern United States – Kaye and Barghoorn revisited. Marine Geology, 128(1–2), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christensen, B. (1982). Management and utilization of mangroves in Asia and the Pacific (FAO environment paper No. 3). Rome: United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization.Google Scholar
  8. Costanza, R., D’Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Linnberg, K., Naeema, S., O’Neill, R. V., Parvelo, J., Raskin, R. G., Sutton, P., & Van den Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deshmukh, V. D. (1991). Utilisation of paste shrimp Acetes: A review. Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series, 110, 7–8.Google Scholar
  10. Dixon, J. A. (1989). The value of mangrove ecosystems. Tropical Coastal Area Management Newsletter, 4, 5–8.Google Scholar
  11. Duarte, C. M., Borum, J., Short, F. T., & Walker, D. I. (2005). Seagrass ecosystems: Their global status and prospects. In N. V. C. Polunin (Ed.), Aquatic ecosystems: Trends and global prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Ellison, J. C. (1993). Mangrove retreat with rising sea-level, Bermuda. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 37, 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ellison, J. C. (2008). Long-term retrospection on mangrove development using sediment cores and pollen analysis: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89, 93–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ellison, J. C. (2009). Geomorphology and sedimentology of mangroves. In G. Perillo, E. Wolanski, D. Cahoon, & M. Brinson (Eds.), Coastal wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach (pp. 565–591). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. Farnsworth, E. J., Ellison, A. M., & Gong, W. K. (1996). Elevated CO2 alters anatomy, physiology, growth, and reproduction of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.). Oecologia, 108(4), 599–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. French, J. (2006). Tidal marsh sedimentation and resilience to environmental change: Exploratory modelling of tidal, sea-level and sediment supply forcing in predominantly allochthonous systems. Marine Geology, 235(1–4), 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fujimoto, K. (2000). Belowground carbon sequestration of mangrove forests in the Asia-Pacific region. In Proceedings of Asia-Pacific cooperation on research for conservation of Mangroves, Okinawa, Japan (pp. 87–96), PMid:10680662.Google Scholar
  18. Ghosh, A. K. (1991). Fauna of Lakshadweep: An overview. In A. K. Ghosh (Ed.), Fauna of Lakshadweep (pp. 1–4). Chennai: Ed. Director, Zoological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  19. Gosliner, T. M. (1993). Biodiversity of tropical opisthobranch gastropod faunas. Proceedings of 7th International Coral Reef Symposium, 2, 702–709.Google Scholar
  20. Groombridge, B., & Jenkins, M. D. (2002). World atlas of biodiversity. Berkeley: Prepared by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gunawardena, M., & Rowan, J. S. (2005). Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka. Environmental Management, 36, 535–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haldar, B. P. (1991). Sipunculans of the Indian coast. Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India, 17, 1–169.Google Scholar
  23. Hornell, J. (1917). The Indian Beche-de-mer industry, its history and recent revival. Madras Fisheries Bulletin, 11(4), 119–150.Google Scholar
  24. James, P. S. B. R., & James, D. B. (1994). Resources, exploitation, conservation and management of holothurians management of beche-de-mer industry in India. Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 46, 17–22.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, S., & Kumaran, M. (1980). Fishes of the Laccadive Archipelago. Trivandrum: Nature Conservation and Aquatic Sciences Service. 760 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Kaliaperumal, N., Kaladharan, P., & Kalimauthu, S. (1989). Seaweed and seagrass resources. CMFRI Bulletin, 43, 162–175.Google Scholar
  27. Kannan, P. (2004). Studies on the biology and incidental catch of sea turtles in selected centres along the Indian coast. Chennai: University of Madras.Google Scholar
  28. Kathiresan, K. (2000). A review of studies on Pichavaram mangrove, southeast India. Hydrobiologia, 430, 185–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Keesing, J., & Irvine, T. (2005). Coastal biodiversity in the Indian Ocean: The known, the unknown and the unknowable. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 34(1), 11–26.Google Scholar
  30. Kennedy, D. M., & Woodroffe, C. D. (2002). Fringing reef growth and morphology: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 57(3–4), 255–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kennish, M. J. (Ed.). (1989). Practical handbook of marine science. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  32. Khaleel, K. M. (2008). Management strategies for the mangrove wetlands of North Malabar (p. 73). Bangalore: Institute of Wood Science and Technology. Abstracts.Google Scholar
  33. Kristensen, E., Bouillon, S., Dittmar, T., & Marchand, C. (2008). Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89, 201–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lal Mohan, R. S. (1989). Turtle resources. Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, 43, 71–76.Google Scholar
  35. Lal Mohan, R. S., James, D. B., & Kalimuthu, S. (1989). Mariculture potentials. CMFRI Bulletin Marine Living Resources of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep an Indicative Survey with Suggestions for Development, 43, 243–247.Google Scholar
  36. Mathew, G., Thulasidas, K., & Venugopal, K. M. (1991). On the first record of the deep sea shark Centrophorus granulosus (Bloch and Schneider) from Indian seas. Marine Fisheries Information Service Technical and Extension Series, 113, 22–23.Google Scholar
  37. McAllister, D. E., Schueler, F. W., Roberts, C. M., & Hawkins, J. P. (1994). Mapping and GIS analysis of the global distribution of coral reef fishes on an equal-area grid. In R. I. Miller (Ed.), Mapping the diversity of nature (pp. 155–175). London: Chapman & Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. McKee, K. L., Cahoon, D. R., & Feller, I. C. (2007). Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16(5), 545–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miall, A. D. (1996). The geology of fluvial deposits: Sedimentary facies, basin analysis and petroleum geology. Berlin: Springer. 582 pp.Google Scholar
  40. Misra, A., & Chakraborty, R. K. (1991). Polychaetes from Lakshadweep. Fauna of Lakshadweep. Zoological Survey India. State Fauna Series, 2, 137–165.Google Scholar
  41. Mondal, K., Bhattacharyya, S. B., & Mitra, A. (2014). Marine algae Enteromorpha intestinalis acts a potential growth promoter in prawn feed. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 3(5), 764–775. ISSN 2277-7105.Google Scholar
  42. Montaggioni, L. F. (2005). History of Indo-Pacific coral reef systems since the last glaciation: Development patterns and controlling factors. Earth-Science Reviews, 71(1–2), 1–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moosa, M. K. (1999). The extent of knowledge about marine biodiversity in Indonesia. In Proceedings of the international symposium on integrated coastal and marine resource management (pp. 126–153). Malang.Google Scholar
  44. Morgan, W. J. (1981). Hotspot tracks and the opening of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. In C. Emiliani (Ed.), The sea (The oceanic lithosphere, Vol. 7, pp. 443–487). New York: Wiley-Interscience.Google Scholar
  45. Ong, J. E. (1993). Mangroves – A carbon source and sink. Chemosphere, 27, 1097–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ong, J. E., Gong, W. K., & Clough, B. F. (1995). Structure and productivity of a 20-year-old stand of Rhizophora apiculata Bl. mangrove forest. Journal of Biogeography, 22, 417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ormond, R. F. G., & Callum, M. (1997). The biodiversity of coral reef fishes. In R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, & M. V. Angel (Eds.), Marine biodiversity – Pattern and processes (pp. 216–257). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Panapitukkul, N., Duarte, C. M., Thampanya, U., Kheowvongsri, P., Srichai, N., Geertz-Hansen, O., Terrados, J., & Boromthanarath, S. (1998). Mangrove colonization: Mangrove progression over the growing Pak Phanang (SE Thailand) mudflat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 47, 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Patterson Edward, J. K., Mathews, G., Patterson, J., Wilhelmsson, D., Tamelander, J., & Linden, O. (2007). Coral reefs of the Gulf of Mannar, Southeastern India – Distribution, diversity and status (SDMRI special research publication No. 12) (113 p.).Google Scholar
  50. Pillai, C. S., G., & Jasmine, S. (1989). The coral fauna Lakshadweep. CMFRI Bulletin, 43, 179–195.Google Scholar
  51. Pomar, L. (2001). Ecological control of sedimentary accommodation: Evolution from a carbonate ramp to rimmed shelf, Upper Miocene, Balearic Islands. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 175(1–4), 249–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pramanick, P., Zaman, S., Bera, D., Raha, A. K., & Mitra, A. (2014). Mangrove fruit products: A search for alternative livelihood for island dwellers of Gangetic Delta. International Journal for Pharmaceutical Research Scholars, 3(1), 131–137.Google Scholar
  53. Rao, C. V. S. (1991). Marine crocodile landed. CMFRI Newsletter No. 51, January–March 1991 (p. 8).Google Scholar
  54. Rao, R. R., Molinari, R. L., & Festa, J. F. (1989). Evolution of the climatological near surface thermal structure of the tropical Indian Ocean 1. Description of mean monthly mixed layer depths at surface temperatures, surface current, and surface meteorological fields. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 10801–10815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rodrigues, C. L. (1996). Taxonomic and ecological survey of the Lakshadweep for Perumal Marine Park. Goa: Project completion report, Department of Marine Sciences and Marine Biotechnology, Goa University. 46 pp.Google Scholar
  56. Ruitenbeek, H. J. (1992). Mangrove management: An economic analysis of management options with a focus on Bintuni Bay, Irian Jaya (EMDI environmental reports No. 8). Jakarta/Halifax: Environmental Management Development in Indonesia Project (EMDI).Google Scholar
  57. Sale, F. P. (1980). The ecology of fishes in coral reefs. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 18, 367–421.Google Scholar
  58. Sale, P. F., Guy, J. A., & Steel, W. J. (1994). Ecological structure of assemblages of coral reef fishes on isolated patch reefs. Oecologia, 98, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sankarankutty, C. (1961). On some decapoda Brachyura from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1. Families Portunidae, Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Mictyridae. Journal of the Marine Biology Association of India, 3, 101–119.Google Scholar
  60. Sathirathai, S. (1998). Economic valuation of mangroves and the roles of local communities in the conservation of natural resources: Case study of Surat Thani, South of Thailand. Singapore: Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia.Google Scholar
  61. Schlager, W. (1993). Accommodation and supply – A dual control on stratigraphic sequences. Sedimentary Geology, 86, 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sebens, K. P. (1994). Biodiversity of coral reefs: What are we losing and Why? American Zoology, 34, 115–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sorokin, Y. I. (1993). Coral reef ecology. Berlin: Springer. 465 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Spalding, M., Kainuma, M., & Collins, L. (2010). World atlas of mangroves (p. 319). London/Washington DC: Earthscan.Google Scholar
  65. Spencer, T., & Möller, I. (2013). Mangrove systems. In J. F. Shroder (Ed.), Treatise on geomorphology (Vol. 10, pp. 360–391). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Subba Rao, K. V., & Subba Rao, N. V. (1991). Mollusca state fauna series (Vol. 2). Calcutta: Fauna of Lakshadweep ZSI.Google Scholar
  67. Suharsono. (2004). Poster presentation at the tenth international coral reef symposium, Okinawa.Google Scholar
  68. Thomas. (1989). In Van Soest, R. W. M., Boury-Esnault, N., Hooper, J. N. A., Rützler, K., de Voogd, N. J., Alvarez de Glasby, B., et al. (2014) World Porifera database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=233966 on August 1, 2014.
  69. Tri, N. H., Adger, W. N., & Kelly, M. (1998). Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: The example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam. Global Environmental Change, 8, 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Untawale, A. G., & Jagtap, T. G. (1984). Marine microphytes of Minicoy (Lakshadweep) coral Atoll of the Arabian Sea. Aquatic Botany, 19, 97–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Untawale, A. G., Dhargalkar, V. K., & Agadi, V. V. (1983). List of marine algae from India: Goa. Goa: Records of the National Institute of Oceanography.Google Scholar
  72. van Bosse, A. W. (1928). Rhodophycea, Gigartinales et. Rhodomeniales. Liste des Algues du Siboga Expedition. Siboga Expedition Monography, 59d, 1–41.Google Scholar
  73. Veron, J. E. N. (2000). Corals of the world (Vols. 1–3, 1382 pp.). Townsville: Australian Institute of Marine Science.Google Scholar
  74. Wells, S., Ravilous, C., & Corcoran, E. (2006). In the front line: Shoreline protection and other ecosystem services from mangroves and coral reefs. Cambridge: United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 33 pp.Google Scholar
  75. Woodroffe, C. D. (1990). The impact of sea-level rise on mangrove shorelines. Progress in Physical Geography, 14(4), 483–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Woodroffe, C. D., & Mulrennan, M. E. (1993). Geomorphology of the lower Mary River Plains, Northern Territory. Darwin: North Australia Research Unit. 152 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  • Sufia Zaman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of OceanographyTechno India UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations