Marine Ecosystem: An Overview

  • Abhijit Mitra
  • Sufia Zaman


About 71 % of the surface of the planet Earth is covered by saline water. The water depth averages 3.8 km, a volume of 1370 × 106 km3. This is the marine ecosystem and is the reservoir of food, oil, natural gas, minerals and several bioactive substances that have immense importance in the pharmaceutical industries. The ecosystem sustains the livelihood of millions of people. The oceans serve as the main highway for international trade as well as the main stabilizer of the world’s climate. The oceanic waters and sediments are also the dwelling place of a large variety of flora and fauna. According to the Global Biodiversity Assessment, produced by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), there are 178,000 marine species in 34 phyla.


Continental Shelf Continental Slope Turbidity Current Abyssal Plain Submarine Canyon 
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Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhijit Mitra
    • 1
  • Sufia Zaman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Marine ScienceUniversity of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of OceanographyTechno India UniversityKolkataIndia

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