Mealybugs throughout the world cause a variety of economic problems. The most obvious damage is caused by the sucking habits of these insects. The damage caused by the mealybugs is linked to sap intake. Heavy infestations often cause stunting or death of the plant host. At times, mealybugs have toxins and act as vectors of certain viruses detrimental to plant life.


Natural Enemy Shikimic Acid Hibiscus Cannabinus Intraguild Predation Sooty Mould 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baumann P (2005) Biology of bacteriocyte-associated endosymbionts of plant sap-sucking insects. Annu Rev Microbiol 59:155–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homptera: Coccoidea: Pseudoccocidae and Putoidae) with data on their geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Intercept, AndoverGoogle Scholar
  3. Ben-Dov Y (2006) Scales in a family/genus query. Available at Accessed 14 Aug 2008
  4. Blumberg D (1997) Parasitoid encapsulation as a defense mechanism in the Coccoidea (Homoptera) and its importance in biological control. Biol Control 8:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blumberg D, Ben-Dov Y, Mendel Z (1999) The citriculus mealybug, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, and its natural enemies in Israel: history and present situation. Entomologica Bari 33:233–242Google Scholar
  6. Boavida C, Neuenschwander P (1995) Influence of host–plant on the mango mealybug, Rastrococcus invadens. Entomol Exp Appl 76:179–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Calatayud PA, Rahbe Y, Delobel B, Khuonghuu F, Tertuliano M, Leru B (1994a) Influence of secondary compounds in the phloem sap of cassava on expression of antibiosis towards the mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti. Entomol Exp Appl 72:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calatayud PA, Tertuliano M, Leru B (1994b) Seasonal changes in secondary compounds in the phloem sap of cassava in relation to plant genotype and infestation by Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Bull Entomol Res 84:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calatayud PA, Polania MA, Seligmann CD, Bellotti AC (2002) Influence of water-stressed cassava on Phenacoccus herreni and three associated parasitoids. Entomol Exp Appl 102:163–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chong JH, Oetting RD (2007) Intraguild predation and interference by the mealybug predator Cryptolalemus montrouzieri on the parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii. Biocontrol Sci Tech 17:933–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franco JC, Silva EB, Carvalho JP (2000) Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae) associated with citrus in Portugal. ISA Press, Lisbon (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
  12. Franco JC, Suma P, da Silva EB, Blumberg D, Mendel Z (2004) Management strategies of mealybug pests of citrus in Mediterranean countries. Phytoparasitica 32:507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gullan PC, Kosztarab M (1997) Adaptations in scale insects. Annu Rev Entomol 42:23–50CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gullan P, Martin JH (2003) Sternorrhyncha (jumping plant lice, whiteflies, aphids, and scale insects). In: Resh VH, Cardé RT (eds) Encyclopedia of insects. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  15. Gutierrez AP, Neuenschwander P, Vanalphen JJM (1993) Factors affecting biological control of cassava mealybug by exotic parasitoids – a ratio-dependent supply-demand driven model. J Appl Ecol 30:706–721Google Scholar
  16. Hardin MR, Benrey B, Coll M, Lamp WO, Roderick GK, Barbosa P (1995) Arthropod pest resurgence: an overview of potential mechanisms. Crop Prot 14:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hogendorp BK, Cloyd RA, Swiader JM (2006) Effect of nitrogen fertility on reproduction and development of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), feeding on two colors of coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides L. Codd. Environ Entomol 35:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim KC (1993) Insect pests and evolution. In: Kim KC, McPheron BA (eds) Evolution of insect pests: patterns of variation. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Kono M, Koga R, Shimada M, Fukatsu T (2008) Infection dynamics of coexisting beta- and gammaproteobacteria in the nested endosymbiotic system of mealybugs. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:4175–4184PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kosztarab M, Kozár F (1988) Scale insects of Central Europe. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  21. Leru B, Tertuliano M (1993) Tolerance of different host-plants to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae). Int J Pest Manag 39:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Leru B, Diangana J, Beringar N (1994) Effects of nitrogen and calcium on the level of resistance of cassava to the mealybug P manihoti. Insect Sci Appl 51:87–96Google Scholar
  23. Lunderstadt J (1998) Impact of external factors on the population dynamics of beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga) (Hom., Pseudococcidae) in beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands during the latency stage. J Appl Entomol/Zeits Angew Entomol 122:319–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mittler TE, Douglas AE (2003) Honeydew. In: Resh VH, Cardé RT (eds) Encyclopedia of insects. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. Moore D, Cross AE (1992) Competition between two primary parasitoids, Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes and Anagyrus mangicola Noyes, attacking the mealybug Rastrococcus invadens Williams and the influence of a hyperparasitoid Chartocerus hyalipennis Hayat. Biocontrol Sci Technol 2:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Muniappan R, Meyerdirk DE, Sengebau FM, Berringer DD, Reddy GVP (2006) Classical biological control of the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Republic of Palau. Fla Entomol 89:212–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakahira K, Arakawa R (2006) Development and reproduction of an exotic pest mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) at three constant temperatures. Appl Entomol Zool 41:573–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nassar NMA (2007) Cassava genetic resources and their utilization for breeding of the crop. Genet Mol Res 6:1151–1168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rae DJ, Jones RE (1992) Influence of host nitrogen levels on development, survival, size and population-dynamics of sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). Aust J Zool 40:327–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Roltsch WJ, Meyerdirk DE, Warkentin R, Andress ER, Carrera K (2006) Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) in southern California. Biol Control 37:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sadof CS, Neal JJ, Cloyd RA (2003) Effect of variegation on stem exudates of coleus and life history characteristics of citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Environ Entomol 32:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Serrano MS, Lapointe SL (2002) Evaluation of host plants and a meridic diet for rearing Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its parasitoid Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Fla Entomol 85:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Silva EB, Mexia A (1999) Histological studies on the stylet pathway, feeding sites and nature of feeding damage by Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in sweet orange. Entomol Bari 33:347–350Google Scholar
  34. Souissi R, Leru B (1997) Effect of host plants on fecundity and development of Apoanagyrus lopezi, an endoparasitoid of the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti. Entomol Exp Appl 82:235–238Google Scholar
  35. Terra WR, Ferreira C (2003) Digestive system. In: Resh VH, Cardé RT (eds) Encyclopedia of insects. Academic, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. Tertuliano M, Leru B (1992) Interaction between cassava mealybugs (Phenacoccus manihoti) and their host plants – amino-acid and sugar contents of sap. Entomol Exp Appl 64:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tertuliano M, Dossougbete S, Leru B (1993) Antixenotic and antibiotic components of resistance to the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) in various hostplants. Insect Sci Appl 14:657–665Google Scholar
  38. Thao ML, Gullan PJ, Baumann P (2002) Secondary (gamma-proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the primary (beta-proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts. Appl Environ Microbiol 68:3190–3197PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Tobih FO, Omoloye AA, Ivbijaro MF, Enobakhare DA (2002) Effects if field infestation by Rastrococcus invadens Williams (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) on the morphology and nutritional status of mango fruits Mangifera indica. Crop Prot 21:751–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tonkyn DW, Whitcomb RF (1987) Feeding strategies and the guild concept among vascular feeding insects and microorganisms. In: Harris KF (ed) Current topics in vector research, vol 4. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. von Dohlen CD, Kohler S, Alsop ST, McManus WR (2001) Mealybug beta-proteobacterial endosymbionts contain gamma-proteobacterial symbionts. Nature 412:433–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Williams DJ, Granara de Willink MC (1992) Mealybugs of Central and South America. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  43. Wysoki M, Izhar Y, Swirski E, Gurevitz E, Greenberg S (1977) Susceptibility of avocado varieties to long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Homoptera- Pseudococcidae), and a survey of its host plants in Israel. Phytoparasitica 5:140–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yang JS, Sadof CS (1995) Variegation in Coleus blumei and the life history of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Environ Entomol 24:1650–1655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang JS, Sadof CS (1997) Variation in the life history of the citrus mealybug parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on three varieties of Coleus blumei. Environ Entomol 26:978–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations