Fruit Crops: Pomegranate



Mealybugs are injurious to pomegranate (Punica granatum) in India, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Florida, Iran, Palestine, Israel and USSR. Both nymphs and adult female mealybugs caused considerable damage to the pomegranate by sucking the sap from the leaves, flowers and fruits, resulting in yellowing of leaves and shedding of flowers and tender fruits. The incidence of mealybugs was more from March onwards and gradually reached to peak during second fortnight of April in North Karnataka, India. From June onwards, there was gradual decline in mealybug population. Among all treatments, dimethoate in addition with fish oil rosin soap recorded higher per cent reduction of mealybugs. Biological control is effective unless disrupted by ants and insecticidal application. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri supplements other local natural enemies in clearing the mealybug species on pomegranate in India. The encyrtid parasitoid Tetracnemoidea indica (Ayyar) played a significant role in reducing the mealybug population on pomegranate in India. Leptomastix dactylopii How. and Coccidoxenoides perminutus (Timberlake) were found to be effective in suppressing the populations of P. citri on pomegranate.


Rosin Soap Mealybug Species Parasitoid Generation Planococcus Citri Verticillium Lecanii 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ananda N (2007) Seasonal incidence and management of sucking pests of pomegranate. M.Sc. thesis submitted to the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, 59 pGoogle Scholar
  2. Ananda N, Kotikal YK, Balikai RA (2009) Management practices for major sucking pests of pomegranate. Karnataka J Agric Sci 22:790–795Google Scholar
  3. Balikai RA (2000) Status of pomegranate pests in Karnataka. Pest Manage Hortic Ecosyst 6(1):65–66Google Scholar
  4. Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, 686 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodenheimer FS (1944) Notes on the coccoidea of Iran with descriptions of new species of Planococcus (Hemiptera: Homoptera). Bull Soc Fouad Ier Ent 28:85–100Google Scholar
  6. Carroll D, Puget B, Higbee B, Quist M, Magallenes O, Smith N, Gjerde A, Schneider K (2006) Pomegranate pest management in the San Joaquin Valley.
  7. EL-Rahn WAA, Salam MA, Wahab AA, Kedr H (1974) Evaluation of insecticides for the control of pomegranate butterfly and citrus mealybug and their effects on physical and chemical characteristics. Indian J Agric Sci 44:862–865Google Scholar
  8. Frappa C (1931) Sur la presence a Madagascar de Pseudococcus filamentosus Ckll. Cochenillenuisible aux Cafiers. Rev Path Veg Entomol Agric 17:305–311Google Scholar
  9. Galanihe LD, Jayasundera MUP, VithanaN GW, Watson N (2010) Occurrence, distribution and control of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), an invasive alien pest in Sri Lanka. Trop Agric Res Ext 13(3):7–10Google Scholar
  10. Gonzalez E, Martinez MA, Delos L, Martinez B (1995) Effectiveness in vitroculture of Verticilliutn lecanii against Planococcus citri. Revista de protection vegeta 10(3):265–268Google Scholar
  11. Hodges AC, Hodges GS, Wisler GC (2005) Exotic scale insects (Hemiptera: coccoidea and whiteflies (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) in Florida tropical fruits; An example of vital role early detection in pest prevention and management. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 118:215–217Google Scholar
  12. Karuppuchamy P (1994) Studies on the management of pests of pomegranate with special reference to fruit borer, Virachola isocrates (Fabr.). Ph.D. thesis, TNAU, Coimbatore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Kulkarni SR, Kadam JR, Chavan AP (2007) Preliminary studies on the efficacy of Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) against mixed populations of mealy bugs. Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 13(I):63–64Google Scholar
  14. Mani M (1995) Studies on the natural enemies of oriental mealybug Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (Homoptera:Pseudococcidae) in India. J Entomol Res 19:61–70Google Scholar
  15. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1990) Outbreak of mealybugs and record of their natural enemies on pomegranate. J Biol Control 4:61–62Google Scholar
  16. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1991) Maconellicoccus hirsutus on pomegranate. Entomon 16:103Google Scholar
  17. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1996) Mealybug in pomegranate.The Hindu, 13 June 1996, p 28Google Scholar
  18. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (2000) Biological suppression of mealybugs Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus lilacinus (CK11) on pomegranate in India. Indian J Plant Prot 28(2):187–189Google Scholar
  19. Moawad SS, Hassan SA, Al-Barty AM (2011) Enumeration and estimation of insect attack fruits of some cultivars of Punica granatum. Afr J Biotechnol 10(19):3880–3887Google Scholar
  20. Nair MRGK (1975) Insects and mites of crops in India. ICAR, New Delhi, 185 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Nayar KK, Ananthakrishnan TN, David BV (1976) General and applied entomology. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 589 pGoogle Scholar
  22. Niyazov OD (1969) The parasites and predators of grape mealybug [Russian]. Zashchita Rastenii 14(11):38–40Google Scholar
  23. PDBC-ICAR (1994) Annual report of project directorate of biological control for 1993–94, Bangalore, India, 281 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Rivnay E (1945) Notes on encyrtidae from Palestine with description of a new species. J Entomol Soc Sthn Agric 8:117–122Google Scholar
  25. Rivnay E (1960) Notes on the parasites of Planococcus citri in Israel. Ktavim 10:223–224Google Scholar
  26. Sheffer VV (1974) The destruction of Comstock’s mealybug [Russian]. Zaschita Rastenii 5:43Google Scholar
  27. Shevale BS, Kulgud SN (1998) Population dynamics pest of pomegranate Punica granatum Linnaeus. In: Proceedings of first national symposium on pest management in horticultural crops, IIHR, Bangalore, pp 47–51Google Scholar
  28. Tanwar RK, Jeyakumar P, Vennila S. (2010) Papaya mealybug and its management strategies, Technical Bulletin 22, National Centre for Integrated Pest Management, New Delhi, 22 p.Google Scholar
  29. Walker A, Hoy M, Meyerdirk DE (2003) Papaya Mealybug. University of Florida Featured Creatures.
  30. Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of southern Asia. The Natural History Museum/Southdene SDN. BHD, London/Kuala Lumpur, 896 pGoogle Scholar
  31. Wohlfarter M, Giliomee JH, Venter E (2010) A survey of the arthropod pests associated with commercial pomegranates, Punica granatum (Lythraceae), in South Africa. Afr Entomol 18(1):192–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations