MMealybugs have been reported as serious pests in North America, South America, Canada, Mexico, USSR, France, South Africa, Australia, Italy, New Zealand, Chile, India and Middle east countries. Mealybugs are phloem feeders that use long, slender mouth parts to suck the sap from the trunk, cordons, buds, spurs, aerial roots, leaves, shoots, nodes, flower panicles and bunches. The grape mealybugs alone caused 50–100 %t yield losses in the field. The pest population is low in winter and rainy seasons and higher in summer months. Biological control is the only answer for adult mealybugs as they develop waxy coating. In the chemical control programme, specific insecticides that only kill mealybug crawlers or early instar nymphs, but not their predators, should be included. Cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical methods of control have to be integrated to manage the mealybug population thus preventing the loss caused by the mealybugs. The insects coming under Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae are named as mealybugs (Williams 2004). Following the application by Miller (1975b), the family-group name Pseudococcidae (Cockerell 1905) was placed on the Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology (Melville 1983) (type genus Pseudococcus Westwood 1840). Afifi (1968) attempted a higher classification of the Pseudococcidae based on a study of the characters of adult males of 17 species. The scale insects are generally divided into two groups, namely the archeococcids and the neococcids. The archeococcids possess two to eight pairs of abdominal spiracles, which are absent in the neococcids (Koteja 2008). The family Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) belongs to the neococcid group.


Natural Enemy Biological Control Program Classical Biological Control Carica Papaya Body Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Dr. Sunil Joshi, Principal Scientist, NBAIR, Bangalore is acknowledged for providing information.


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Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

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