Fruit Crops: Grapevine

  • M. Mani
  • U. Amala


Mealybugs have been reported as serious pests in North America, South America, Canada, Mexico, USSR, France, South Africa, Australia, Italy, New Zealand, Chile, Middle East countries, etc. (Table 38.1). Economic losses resulting from mealybug infestations on grapes have dramatically increased in India. As many as seven species are known to attack grapevine in India (Mani et al. 2008). Mealybugs are considered to be the most important pests of grapevine in India particularly in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.


Table Grape Wine Grape Sooty Mould Predatory Beetle Grape Bunch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Afanassiev AP (1915) Russian viticulture in 1915. Messenger Viticult Odesssa XXX:11–4, 36–52, 114–141Google Scholar
  2. Aida H, Mohammad 1, Saber F Moussa1, Ahmed H, Abo-Ghalia, Sayed A Ahmed (2010) Efficiency of certain insecticides on the population(s) of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) and their natural enemies under the field condition in Ismailia governorate. Egypt Acad J Biol Sci 2(2):11–17Google Scholar
  3. AliNiazee MT, Stafford EM (1972) Control of the grape mealybug on ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapes in California. J Econ Entomol 65(6):1744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1917) Vine coccids in Hungary Rev. Viticult Paris XLVI:270Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1946) Short notes and exhibits. Indian J Entomol 7:237–242Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (1984) Woes of grape growers of Anantapur. The Hindu, dated 7 Dec 1984Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (1992) A report submitted to the research review committee meeting in agricultural entomology and nematology for 1991–92. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Rahuri, (Maharashtra), 19 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Anwar A (1991) Effect of spraying of insecticides on mealy bugs attack. Bull Penelit Hutan 541:7–10Google Scholar
  9. Artigas JN (1994) Entomología económica, Insectos de interés agrícola, forestal, medico y veterinario, vol 1. Ediciones Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, 1126 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Avidov Z, Swirski E (1950) Control of citrus mealybug on grapevines by organophosphate preparations. Hassadeh 30:716–718Google Scholar
  11. Aykac MK, Erguder TM (1972) A study of control measures against Planococcus citri (Risso) in the vineyards of Tok at Province. Sams BioI Zir Mucad Arast Enstit 43:171–172Google Scholar
  12. Azam KM (1983) Losses due to pests in grapes. Indian J Ent (Special Issue) 2:387–389Google Scholar
  13. Babu TR, Azam KM (1987) Studies on biology, host spectrum and seasonal population fluctuation of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on grapevine. Indian J Hortic 44(3–4):284–288Google Scholar
  14. Balikai RA (1999a) New record of alternate host plants of grape mealy bug. Insect Environ 5(2):81Google Scholar
  15. Balikai RA (1999b) Seasonal incidence of grapevine, mealybug in North Karnataka. Insect Environ 4(4):148–149Google Scholar
  16. Baskaran RKM, Lakshmi LG, Uthamasamy S (1999) Coccids and their management in guava intercropped with coconut. Pest Manage Hortic Ecosyst 5(1):28–31Google Scholar
  17. Batra RC, Brar SS, Khangura JS, Dhillon WS (1987) A new record of Planococcus pacificus Cox. (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) as a pest of grapevine in India. Punjab Hortic J 27(3–4):250–251Google Scholar
  18. Beevi ND, Janarthanan R, Natarajan K (1992) Efficacy of some insecticides against Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on mulberry. J Insect Sci 5(1):114Google Scholar
  19. Ben-Dov Y (1994) A systematic catalogue of the mealybugs of the world (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Intercept Limited, Andover, p 686Google Scholar
  20. Bentley WJ, Varela LG, Zalom F, Smith RJ, Purcell AH, Phillips PA, Haviland DR, Daane KM, Battany MC (2008) Grape: pest management guidelines. University of California IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Grapes, Insects and Mites Publication 3448. University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  21. Berlinger MJ (1977) The Mediterranean vine mealybug and its natural enemies in southern Israel. Phytoparasitica 5:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bernard L (1914) Technique of methods of control of insect pests of vine. J.B. Boilliere etfils, Paris, 364 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Bierlleonhardt BA, Moreno DS, Schwarz M, Fargerlund J, Plimmer JR (1981) Isolation, identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). Tetrahedron Lett 22:389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Biradar AP, Kabadagi CB, Patil DR (2006) Evaluation of Diafenthiuron 50 SC (Polo) against grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Int J Agric Sci 2(2):470–471Google Scholar
  25. Bodenheimer FS (1944) Note on the coccoidea of Iran with descriptive of new species (Hemiptera: Homoptera). Bull Soc Found Ier Ent 28:85–100Google Scholar
  26. Bonnemaison FS (1962) Les ennemis a nimaux desplants cultives et des forets, vol 3. SEP, Paris, 1502Google Scholar
  27. Brotherston RP (1914) Mealybug on vines. Gardner’s Chron., Lond IV:349Google Scholar
  28. Cabaleiro C, Segura A (1997) Field transmission of grapevine leaf roll associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) by the mealybug Planococcus citri. Plant Dis 81:283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cabaleiro C, Couceiro C, Pereira S, Cid M, Barrasa M, Segura A (2008) Spatial analysis of epidemics of grapevine leaf roll associated virus-3. Eur J Plant Pathol 121:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Camporese P (1994) Prime osservazioni sulla biologia di Heliococcus bohemicus Sulc nei vigneti del veneto. Mem Soc Entomol Ital 72:195–200Google Scholar
  31. Chacko MJ, Bhat PK, Rao LVA, Deepak Singh MB, Ramanarayan EP, Sreedharan K (1978) The use of ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, for the control of coffee mealybugs. J Coffee Res 8:14–19Google Scholar
  32. Charles JG (1981) Distribution and life history of the long-tailed mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Auckland New Zealand vineyards. N Z J Zool 8:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Charles JG, Walker JTS, White V (1993) Resistance to chlorpyriphos in the mealybugs Pseudococcus affinis and P. longispinus in Hawkes Bay and Waikato pipfruit orchards. In: Proceedings of the forty sixth New Zealand plant protection conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 120–125Google Scholar
  34. Chochiya AS (1941) Propagation of Symherobious in Abkazhia (Russia). Sparav Vop Karant Rast 9:7–9 (d. RAE32: 101)Google Scholar
  35. Chong JH, Roda AL, Mannion CM (2008) Life history of the mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), at constant temperatures. Environ Entomol 37:323–332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chris AG, Kent MD (2001) Seasonal movement and distribution of the grape mealy bug (Homoptera: Pseudoccidae): developing a sampling programme for San Joaquin valley vineyards. J Econ Entomol 94(1):291–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cordo H, Logarzo G, Braun O, Di Iorio O (2004) Catalog of phytophagus insects of Argentina and their associated plants, Impreso en San Miguel de Tucuman, Argentina, 734pGoogle Scholar
  38. Cottier HRA, Jacks H (1952) Control of the grape house mealybug (Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrh. (Wellington). N Z J Sci Tech 34:266–276Google Scholar
  39. Cox J (1977) Survey of mealybug species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Auckland orchards and vineyards. N Z J Agric Res 20:259–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. CSIRO (2001) Australian Insect Common Names.
  41. Daane KM, Malakar-Kuenen R, Guillen M, Bentley WJ, Bianchi M, Gonzalez D (2003) Abiotic and biotic pest refuges hamper biological control of mealybugs in California vineyards. In: Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on biological control of arthropods, Honolulu, Hawaii, 14–18 Jan 2002, pp 389–398Google Scholar
  42. Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Walton VM, Malakar-Kuenen R, Millar JG, Ingels CA, Weber EA, Gispert C (2006) New controls investigated for vine mealybug. Calif Agric 60:31–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Daane KM, Sime KR, Fallon J, Cooper ML (2007) Impacts of Argentine ants on mealybugs and their natural enemies in California’s coastal vineyards. Ecol Entomol 32:583–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Daane KM, Cooper ML, Triapitsyn SV, Andrews JW, Ripa R (2008a) Parasitoids of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) in California: establishment of Pseudaphycus flavidulus (Hym.: Encyrtidae) and discussion of related parasitoid species. Biocontrol Sci Technol 18:43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Daane KM, Cooper ML, Triapitsyn SV, Walton VM, Yokota GY, Haviland DR, Bentley WJ, Godfrey KE, Wunderlich LR (2008b) Vineyard managers and researchers seek sustainable solutions for mealybugs, a changing pest complex. Calif Agric 62:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Millar JG, Walton VM, Cooper ML, Biscay P, Yokota GY (2008c) Integrated management of mealybugs in California vineyards. Acta Hortic 785:235–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Daane KM, Bentley WJ, Smith RJ, Haviland DR, Weber E, Gispert C, Battany MC, Millar JG (2011) Vine mealybug. In: Bettiga L, Bentley WJ (eds) University of California grape pest management manual. University of California Press, Oakland, pp 125–135Google Scholar
  48. Daane KM, Rodrigo PP, Almeida, Bell VA, Walker JT, Botton S, Fallahzadesh M, Mani M, Miano JL, Sforza R, Walton VM, Zaveizo T (2012) Biology and management of mealybugs in vineyards. In: Bostman NJ et al (ed) Arthropod management in Vineyard pests, approaches, and future directions. Springer Science + Media B.V., Dordrecht, pp 271–307. doi: 10.1007/978-007-4032-7-12
  49. Dantsig EM (1977) The nomenclature and distribution of some harmful species of coccids (Homopera; Coccoidea). Entomol Checkol Obozrenie 56:99–102Google Scholar
  50. De Castella F, French C (1929) Mealybug Dactylopius longispinus, a potential vine pest. J Dept Agrie Vie XXVII:427–433Google Scholar
  51. Driesche RG, Van Bellotti AC, Castillo J, Herrera CJ (1990) Estimating total losses from parasitoids for a field population of a continuously breeding insect, cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus herreni (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in Colombia, S.A. Fla Entomol 73(1):133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dzhiviladze KN (1979) Use of biological methods in Georgia. Zashch Rast 5:28Google Scholar
  53. El Sayed MT, Soliman AA, Salama HS (1962) On the chemical control of the grapevine mealybug, Planococcus (Pseudococcus) vitis (Nied) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Bull Soc Entomol Egypt 46:467–472Google Scholar
  54. Fedorov SI (1926) Pests of vines in the crimes in 1925–26. Vesnik vinodel Ukrai XXVIII:22–25Google Scholar
  55. Fisher PW (1983) Mealybug control in grapes. In: Proceedings of 36th N. weed and pest control conference Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 145–147Google Scholar
  56. Flaherty D, Jensen F, Nakata J (1976) Grape mealybug. University of California Agriculture Extension, Barkely, CA, A 0038, 13 pGoogle Scholar
  57. Flaherty DL, Peacock WL, Bettiga L, Leavitt GM (1982) Chemicals losing effect against grape mealybug. Calif Agric 36(5/6):15–16Google Scholar
  58. Flebut AJ (1922) The grape mealybug. Mon Bull Calif State Dept Agric Sacramento XI(7):6–11Google Scholar
  59. Fletcher TB (1919) Report of the imperial entomologist. Scientific reports of the Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, 1918–1919, pp 86–103Google Scholar
  60. Fletcher TB (1923) Report of imperial entomologist. Scientific reports of the Agricultural Research Institute, 1922–19923, pp 61–75Google Scholar
  61. Fletcher TB (1932) Report of the imperial entomologist. Scientific reports of the Agricultural Research Institute, for 1930–1931, pp 87–92Google Scholar
  62. Foldi I, Kozar F (2006) New species of Cataenococcus and Puto from Brazil and Venezuela, with data on others species (Hemiptera:Coccidea). Nouvelle Revued´Entomologie 22:305–312Google Scholar
  63. Forte V, Duso C, Borgo M, Pozzebon A (2008) Effects of pesticides on the grape mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera Pseudococcidae) in North-Eastern Italy [Italian]. Giornate Fitopatologiche 2008, Cervia (RA), 12–14 marzo 2008. 1:211–218Google Scholar
  64. Francis A, Bloem KA, Roda AL, Lapointe SL, Zhang A, Onokpise O (2007) Development of trapping methods with a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Fla Entomol 90:440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Frick KE (1952) The value of some organic phosphate insecticides in control of grape mealybug. J Econ Entomol 45:340–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fu Castillo AA, Miranda Blanco JL, Osorio Acosta G, Martinez Carrillo JL (2004) Chemical control of mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera:Pseudococcidae) in table grapes[Spanish]. Agric Tecnica Mex 30(1):101–105Google Scholar
  67. Golino DA, Sim ST, Gill R, Rowhani A (2002) California mealybugs can spread grapevine leafroll disease. Calif Agric 56:196–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gonzalez RH (1982) The white mealybug on grapes. Rev Fruiticola 4:3–7Google Scholar
  69. Gonzalez RH (2003) Mealybugs of agricultural and quarantine importance in fruit orchards in Chile (Hem.: Pseudococcidae). Rev Fruticola 24:5–17Google Scholar
  70. Gonzalez RH, Poblete JG, Barria PG (2001) The tree fruit mealybug in Chile, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Rev Fruticola 22:17–26Google Scholar
  71. Grimes EW, Cone WW (1985a) Control of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hom.: Pseudococcidae), on Concord grape in Washington. J Entomol Soc B C 82:3–6Google Scholar
  72. Grimes EW, Cone WW (1985b) Life history, sex attraction, mating, and natural enemies of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 78:554–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gullan PJ (2000) Identification of the immature instars of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on citrus in Australia. Aust J Entomol 39:160–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gullan PJ, Downie DA, Steffan SA (2003) A new pest species of the mealybug genus Ferrisia Fullaway (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from the United States. Ann Entomol Soc Am 96:723–737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gutierrez AP, Daane KM, Ponti L, Walton VM, Ellis CK (2008) Prospective evaluation of the biological control of vine mealybug: refuge effects and climate. J Appl Ecol 45:524–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hatta TY, Hara AH (1992) Evaluation of insecticides against pests of red ginger in Hawaii. Trop Pest Manage 38(3):234–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Humber RA, Soper RS (1981) Isolation, preservation and identification of entomopathogenic fungi. In: Rogerts DW (ed) Entomopathogenic fungi. Allenheld Osmum, Mont ClairGoogle Scholar
  78. FIP Hyderabad (1982) Studies on seasonal occurance of grape pests around Hyderabad. Research reports, fruit improvement project, p 493Google Scholar
  79. Ibadova SI (1985) Bioecological characteristics of the grape mealybug (Planococcus ficus Signoret) in the Apsheronskiy Peninsula [Russian]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk 4:66–69Google Scholar
  80. Iordanou N (1974) Chemical control of grape berry moth. Tech Pap Agric Res Inst Cyprus 5(7):88Google Scholar
  81. Jablonowski J (1917) Scale insects as vine pests and their relationships with other cultivated plants. Mon Bull Agric Intell Plant Dis Rome VIII:316–317Google Scholar
  82. Jadhav SS (1993) Life history of grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) at different temperatures. Maharashtra J Hortic 7(1):16–29Google Scholar
  83. Jakab J, Szendrey L (1989) On the presence of Heliococcus bohemicus Sulc in vineyards of the Héves region) (in Hungarian). Növényvédelem XXV Evflolyam:460–464Google Scholar
  84. Jayachakravarthy G (2002) Bioefficacy of fungal bioagent Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Vigas against some sucking pests. M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra (India)Google Scholar
  85. Joubert CJ (1943) Mealybugs on vines. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture of South Africa 243Google Scholar
  86. Katke M (2008) Seasonal incidence, biology and management of grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Ph.D. thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  87. Kaydan MB, Klncer N (2005) Natural enemies of Phenacoccus aceris (Signoret) (Hem.: Pseudococcidae) and their population dynamics and determination of effects on mealybug population [Turkish]. Bitki Koruma Bulteni 45(1–4):79–97Google Scholar
  88. Koli HR (2003) Seasonal incidence and management of grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidhyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra (India)Google Scholar
  89. Kozar F, Guignard E, Bachmann F, Mani E, Hippe C (1994) The scale insect and whitefly of Switzerland (Homoptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea). Bulletin de la société entomologique Suisse 67:151–161Google Scholar
  90. Krishnamoorthy A, Singh SP (1987) Biological control of citrus mealybug with an introduced parasite, Leptomastix dactylopii in India. Entomophaga 32:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kurdyukov VV, Alan MN (1973) Damage caused by citrus mealybug Pseudococcus citri on grapevine and its chemical control. Zash Rast 26:26–30Google Scholar
  92. Lambdin RL (1983) A revision of the genus, Asterococcus (Hemip: Cerocckcidae). Proc Entomal Soc Wash 85:297–308Google Scholar
  93. Lo PL, Walker JTS (2010) Good results from a soil-applied insecticide against mealybugs. N Z Winegrower 14:125–127Google Scholar
  94. Lo PL, Walker JTS (2011) Soil applications of two nicotinoid insecticides to control mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) in vineyards. N Z Plant Prot 64:101–106Google Scholar
  95. Lo PL, Bell VA, Walker JTS (2009) Maximising the effectiveness of insecticides to control mealybugs in vineyards. N Z Plant Prot 62:296–301Google Scholar
  96. Lotrionte G (1920) La cocciniglia grigia della vite La Nuova Agricultura del Lazia, Rome VIII:42Google Scholar
  97. Mahfoudhi N, Dhouibi MH (2009) Survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and their natural enemies in Tunisian vineyards. Afr Entomol 17(2):154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mani M (1986) Distribution, bioecology and management of the grape mealybug, Macone/licoccus hirsutus (Green) with special reference to its natural enemies. Ph.D. thesis, USA, Bangalore, 201 pGoogle Scholar
  99. Mani M (1990) Rid the grape-vine of mealybug. Indian Hortic 35:28–29Google Scholar
  100. Mani M (1994) Effectiveness of the exotic encyrtid parasitoid, Leptomastix dactylopii How. in the control of mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) in guava orchards. J Entomol Res 18(4):351–355Google Scholar
  101. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (1989) Feeding potential and development of green lacewing Mallada boninensis (Okamoto) on the grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Entomon 14(1 & 2):19–20Google Scholar
  102. Mani M, Krishnamoorthy A (2008) Biological control of Planococcus citri (Risso) on grapevine with Cryptolaemus montrouzieri in India. Indian J Plant Prot 36:125–127Google Scholar
  103. Mani M, Kulkarni NS (2007) Citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) Homoptera; Pseudococcidae)- a major pest of grapes in India. Entomon 32:235–236Google Scholar
  104. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1987a) Record of mealy bug species on grapevine in Karnataka. Curr Sci 56:1192Google Scholar
  105. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1987b) Development and feeding potential of the coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. on grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). J Biol Control 1:19–22Google Scholar
  106. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1988a) Field evaluation of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. in the suppression of Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green on grapevine. J Biol Control 2:14–16Google Scholar
  107. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1988b) Studies on the safety of different pesticides to the grape mealybug natural enemies, Anagyrus dactylopii (How.) and Scymnus coccivora Ayyar. Indian J Plant Prot 16:205–210Google Scholar
  108. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1988c) Biology of the grape mealybug parasitoid, Anagyrus dactylopii (How) (Encyrtidae: Hymenoptera). Entomon 13(3–4):211–213Google Scholar
  109. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1989) Development of the encyrtid parasitoid Anagyrus dactylopii (How.) on the grape mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Entomon 14:49–51Google Scholar
  110. Mani M, Thontadarya TS (1991) Effect of soil application of systemic granular insecticides on the population of grape mealybug and its natural enemies. Pestology XV(7):24–30Google Scholar
  111. Mani M, Thontadarya TS, Singh SP (1987) Record of natural enemies on the grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Curr Sci India 56:624–625Google Scholar
  112. Mani M, Kulkarni NS, Banerjee K, Adsule PG (2008) Pest management in grapes. Extension Bulletin No. 2, NRC For Grapes, Pune, 50 pGoogle Scholar
  113. Manjunath TM (1985) India- Maconellicoccus hirsutus on grapevine. FAO Plant Prot Bull 33(2):74Google Scholar
  114. Manjunath TM (1986) Recent outbreaks of mealybugs and their biological control in ‘Resurgence of sucking pests’. In: Jayaraj S (ed) Proceedings of national symposium. TNAU, Coimbatore, pp 249–253Google Scholar
  115. Mansour R, Youssfi FE, Lebdi KG, Rezgui S (2010) Imidacloprid applied through drip irrigation as a new promising alternative to control mealybugs in Tunisian vineyards. J Plant Prot Res 50(3):314–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Manuel de Borbon C, Gracia O, Gomez Talquenca GS (2004) Mealybugs and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in vineyards of Mendoza, Argentina. Am J Enol Viticul 55:283–285Google Scholar
  117. Marotta S, Harten A, Van A, Mahyoub MA (2001) Mealybugs on agricultural crops in Yemen. Bolletino de zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura 33(3):233–238Google Scholar
  118. Mgocheki N, Addison P (2009) Interference of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) with biological control of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Biol Control 49:180–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Michelakis S, Hamid HA (1995) Integrated control methods of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) in Crete, Greece. Isr J Ent 29:277–284Google Scholar
  120. Millar JG, Daane KM, McElfresh JS, Moreira JA, Malakar-Kuenen R, Guillen M, Bentley WJ (2002) Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. J Econ Entomol 95:706–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Morandi Filho WJ, Botton M, Grützmacher AD, Fajardo TVM, Prado E (2007) Vetor Encoberto, cochonilhas algodonosas em videira. Revista Cultivar Hortaliças e Frutas, Pelotas, pp 28–29Google Scholar
  122. Murray DAH (1982) Effects of sticky banding of custard apple tree trunks on ants and citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) (Pseudococcidae, Hemiptera) in South Eastern Queensland. Qld J Agric Animal Sci 39:141–146Google Scholar
  123. Muthukrishnan N, Manoharan T, Thevan PST, Anbu S (2005) Evaluation of buprofezin for the management of grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). J Entomol Res 29(4):339–344Google Scholar
  124. Myburg AC, Whitehead VB, Daiber CC (1973) Pests of deciduous fruits, grapes and miscellaneous other horticultural crops in South Africa. Entomol Memoir 27:20–34Google Scholar
  125. Niedielski (1969) Diseases of fruit trees in Crimea(ii) the vine Coccus vitis L., 2.Cf. J Entomol Soc S Afr 38:125–130Google Scholar
  126. Niyazov OD (1969) The parasites and predators of grape mealybug. Zashch Rast 14:38–40Google Scholar
  127. Nougaret RL (1920) Sulphur fumigation for the control of mealybug (Pseudococcus bakeri, Essig) on grape vines in the vineyard. Mon Bull Calif Dept Agric Qld 9(26–31):83–85Google Scholar
  128. Panis A, Trevillot R (1975) Control of the mealybug in French Mediterranean vineyards Prog. Agricole viticole 92:470–473Google Scholar
  129. Patricia Larrain S (1999) Effect of chemigation and painted applications of imidacloprid (ConfidorReg.) upon Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in table grapes [Spanish]. Agricultura Tecnica (Santiago) 59(1):13–25Google Scholar
  130. Persad A, Khan A (2000) The effect of five insecticides on Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its natural enemies Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Schymnus coccivora (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Int Pest Control 42(5):170–173Google Scholar
  131. Phillips PA, Sherk CJ (1991) To control mealybugs, stop honeydew-seeking ants. Calif Agric 45(2):26–28Google Scholar
  132. Pintz YI (1932) Notes on vine pests III. Helenendorf. Ent. Kab. Koop.Vinogr. “Kondordiz” 136 p. (Cf RAE(A) 21:9–11)Google Scholar
  133. Prince RW, Fisher PW (1982) Mealybug control in grapes. In: Proceedings of 35th New Zealand weed and pest control conference, 9–10 Aug 1982, pp 36–38Google Scholar
  134. Puttarudraiah M, Murthy E (1976) Planococcoides sp. nr. robusta, a mango root mealy bug and its control. Curr Res 5:205–207Google Scholar
  135. Raguraman S, Premalatha K (2006) Field evaluation of methomyl against mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) and predatory coccinellid, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant in grapes. Pest Res J 18(1):28–30Google Scholar
  136. Rajagopal BK, Viraktamath CA, Nachi Gowda V (1997) Incidence of ant associated mealybug Xenococcus annandalei (Homoptera: Peudocooidae) on grapes in India. Entomon 22:165–166Google Scholar
  137. Raman KR (1958) A new pest of importance on grapevine in Madurai district. S Indian Hort 6:64–66Google Scholar
  138. Ranga Reddy A, Narayana LK (1986) Biology of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. Coccinellidae, a predatory beetle of mealybugs. Indian Grape J 2:40–52Google Scholar
  139. Ripa SR, Rojas PS (1990) Management and biological control of the white vine mealybug. Revista Fruticola 11:82–87Google Scholar
  140. Rotundo G, Tremblay E (1972) Studies on a sexual pheromone of Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera, Coccoidea). I. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri Portici 30:217–230Google Scholar
  141. Rotundo G, Tremblay E (1982) Preliminary report on the attractivity of the synthetic pheromone of Planococcus citri (Homoptera: Coccoidea) in comparison to virgin females. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri 39:97–102Google Scholar
  142. Rotundo G, Gaston LK, Shorey HH (1979) Collection and purification of the female sex pheromone of Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria Filippo Silvestri Portici 36:160–171Google Scholar
  143. Rozanov AA, Loseva VG (1963) The vine mealybug and its parasites. Zashch Rast 3:53 (cf. RAE, 52:595)Google Scholar
  144. Ruiz Castro A (1938) Experiments in the control of pseudococcus citri on the grapevine. BoloPat Veg Ent Agric 8:162–170Google Scholar
  145. Rzaeva LM (1985) Parasites and predators of the grape mealybug (Planococcus ficus Signoret) and introduction of new natural enemies into the eastern Transcaucasus [Russian]. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR Biologicheskikh Nauk 4:34–39Google Scholar
  146. Salazar A, Gerding M, Luppichini P, Ripa R, Larraín P, Zaviezo T, Larral P (2010) Biología, Manejo y Control de Chanchitos Blancos. Bol. INIA 204. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (Chile), 59 pGoogle Scholar
  147. Satyanarayana G (1981) Problems of grape production around Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh grape growers association, Hyderabad, 60 pGoogle Scholar
  148. Satyanarayana C, Babu RKY, Manjunatha M (2003) Preliminary studies on botanicals against Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Insect Environ 9(3):114–115Google Scholar
  149. Sazo L, Araya JE, Cerda J (2008) Effect of a siliconate coadjuvant and insecticides in the control of mealybug of grapevines, Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 35:177–184Google Scholar
  150. Sforza R, Boudon-Padieu E, Greif C (2003) New mealybug species vectoring grapevine leaf roll-associated viruses-1 and-3 (GLRaV-1 and-3). Eur J Plant Pathol 109:975–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Shafik M, Husni M (1939) The ideal spray emulsion for the control of scale insects on citrus in Egypt. Bulletin de la Société Fouad I d’Entomologie 22:357–395Google Scholar
  152. Shelke RK (2001) Biology and biointensive methods of management of grapevine mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). M.Sc. (Agri.) thesis, Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, Maharashtra (India)Google Scholar
  153. Shraiwa H (1935) Studies on mealybugs infesting pear in Japan. Kontyu 9:63–75Google Scholar
  154. Shreedhar Rao A, Sreeramalu M, Azam KM (1988) Comparison of certain insecticides with other insecticides against grape mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Pestology 12(11):22–23Google Scholar
  155. Singh SP (1978) Propagation of a coccinellid beetle for the biological control of citrus and coffee mealy bugs. In: Scientific conference, CPA Dec 1978, 2 pGoogle Scholar
  156. Srinivas T, Prasad KS, Shekhar MA, Manjunath D (2007) Evaluation on neem based formulations vis-a-vis dichlorvos against Meconellicoccus hirsutus. Uttar Pradesh J Zool 27:13–20Google Scholar
  157. Srinivasan TR (1987) Studies on biology and control of grape mealybug, Maconelicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera : Pseudoccoccidae), M.Sc., (Ag.) thesis, TNAU, Madurai, 109 pGoogle Scholar
  158. Srinivasan TR, Sundara Babu PC (1989) Field evaluation of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, the coccinellid predator against grapevine mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). S Indian Hortic 37:50–51Google Scholar
  159. Stanzin R (1916) The ‘White cochineal of the vine’ (Pseudococcus vitis) in the provinces of Mandaza and La Rioja (Argentina). Int Nat Rev Sci Pract Agric Rome VII:173Google Scholar
  160. Su TH, Wang CM (1988) Control measure for the citrus mealybugs and latania scale insects of grapevine. Plant Prot Bull (Taiwan) 30(3):279–288Google Scholar
  161. Subba Rao BR, Sangwar HS, Abbasi OA, Singh Y, Ksheer Sagar AM (1965) New records of hymenopterous parasites of Nipaecoccus vaster Maskell (Homp.Coccidae) a serious pest of citrus from India. Indian J Entamol 22:109–110Google Scholar
  162. Sunitha ND, Jagginavar SB, Biradar AP (2009) Bioefficacy botanicals and newer insecticides against grapevine mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Karnataka J Agric Sci 22(3):710–711Google Scholar
  163. Swart PL, Barnes BN (1975) Improved mealybug control on table grapes with a quick-breakdown insecticide. Decid Fruit Grow 25(1):4, 6–8Google Scholar
  164. Swart PL, Barnes BN (1976) Mealybug on table grapes: a most effective insecticide for the control of the vine mealybug, and the economic implications of three- and four-spray programs. Decid Fruit Grow 26(10):378–382Google Scholar
  165. Tejkumar S, Aftab Ahmed M, Dhramaraju E (1977) Occurrence of the mealy bug, Pseudococcus spp. A serious pest of grapevine around Hyderabad. Indian J Entamol 39:189–190Google Scholar
  166. Thiem H (1925) The most important coccids injurious to orchards and vineyards in Germany Biol. Reiehsanst, Land-u-Forstw. Flugbl 77:4Google Scholar
  167. Tipping C, Bikoba V, Chander GJ, Mitcham EJ (2003) Efficacy of Silwet L-77 against several arthropod pests of table grape. J Econ Entomol 96(1):246–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Tranfaglia A, Viggiani G (1981) Problems of integrated control in vine-growing in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura 16:85–89Google Scholar
  169. Transfaglia A (1976) Considerationson the morphological affinities between Planococcus citri and P. ficus (SigJ (Homoptera : CoecoideaL In Alii XI Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia, Portiei sorrento, 10–15 May 1976, pp 91–93Google Scholar
  170. Tryapitzyn SV, Tryapitzyn VA (1999) Parasitoids of mealybugs (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) on cultivated grapes in Argentina, with description of a new species of the genus Aenasius Walker (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) [Russian]. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 78(1):174–180Google Scholar
  171. Verghese A (1997) Colony number, size and reproductive potential of the grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) on laboratory host, pumpkin. Insect Environ 2(4):139–140Google Scholar
  172. Walton VM, Pringle KL (1999) Effects of pesticides used on table grapes on the mealybug parasitoid Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). S Afr J Enol Viticult 20:31–34Google Scholar
  173. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2001) Effects of pesticides and fungicides used on grapevines on the mealybug predatory beetle Nephus ‘boschianus’ (Coccinellidae, Scymnini). S Afr J Enol Viticul 22:107–110Google Scholar
  174. Walton VM, Pringle KL (2004) A survey of mealybugs and associated natural enemies in vineyards in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. S Afr J Enol Viticul 25:23–25Google Scholar
  175. Walton VM, Daane KM, Pringle KL (2004) Monitoring Planococcus ficus in South African vineyards with sex pheromone-baited traps. Crop Prot 23:1089–1096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Whitehead VB (1961) Insect enemies of the mealybug on grapevines. Decid Fruit Grow 10:123–127Google Scholar
  177. Williams DJ (2004) Mealybugs of southern Asia. The Natural History Museum/Southdene SDN. BHD, London/Kuala Lumpur, 896 pGoogle Scholar
  178. Willink MCG, Scatoni IB, ETerra AL, Frioni MI (1997) Cochinillas harinosas (Homoptera, Pseudococcidae) que afectan plantas cultivadas y silvestres en Uruguay. Agrociencia Montevidéo 1:96–100Google Scholar
  179. Wunn H (1928) Observations on coccids Bad. 81. Z Angew Ent ii(6):321–322Google Scholar
  180. Zhang AJ, Amalin D, Shirali S, Serrano MS, Franqui RA, Oliver JE, Klun JA, Aldrich JR, Meyerdirk DE, Lapointe SL (2004) Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:9601–9606PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zillig H, Neimeyer L (1929) An outbreak of the mealybug, Phenacoccus hystrix (Bar) in the vine region of Mmosel. Saar and Ruwere Aab Biol Reichsanst XVII:67–102Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indian Institute of Horticultural ResearchBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations